N1-aminopropylagmatine, a new polyamine produced as a key intermediate in polyamine biosynthesis of an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus.
ABSTRACT In the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus, a disruption mutant of a gene homologous to speB (coding for agmatinase = agmatine ureohydrolase) accumulated N1-aminopropylagmatine (N8-amidino-1,8-diamino-4-azaoctane, N8-amidinospermidine), a new compound, whereas all other polyamines produced by the wild-type strain were absent from the cells. Double disruption of speB and speE (polyamine aminopropyltransferase) resulted in the disappearance of N1-aminopropylagmatine and the accumulation of agmatine. These results suggested the following. 1) N1-Aminopropylagmatine is produced from agmatine by the action of an enzyme coded by speE. 2) N1-Aminopropylagmatine is a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of unique polyamines found in the thermophile. 3) N1-Aminopropylagmatine is a substrate of the SpeB homolog. They further suggest a new biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, by which polyamines are formed from agmatine via N1-aminopropylagmatine. To confirm our speculation, we purified the expression product of the speB homolog and confirmed that the enzyme hydrolyzes N1-aminopropylagmatine to spermidine but does not act on agmatine.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the recent, successful efforts to detect mycotoxins, new methods are still required to achieve higher sensitivity, more simplicity, higher speed, and higher accuracy at lower costs. This paper describes the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) in the licorice root. A quick screening and measuring method is proposed to be employed after cleaning up the extracted OTA by immunoaffinity columns. The ion mobility spectrometer is used in the inverse mode to better differentiate the OTA peak from the neighboring ones. After optimization of the experimental conditions such as corona voltage, injection port temperature, and IMS cell temperature, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.010 ng is obtained. Furthermore, the calibration curve is found to be in the range of 0.01-1 ng with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.988. Licorice roots were analyzed for their OTA content to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method in the quantitative detection of OTA in real samples.Talanta 01/2011; 83(3):988-93. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to survive extremes of pH, temperature, salinity and pressure, organisms have been found to develop unique defences against their environment, leading to the biosynthesis of novel molecules ranging from simple osmolytes and lipids to complex secondary metabolites. This review highlights novel molecules isolated from microorganisms that either tolerate or favour extreme growth conditions.Natural Product Reports 02/2009; 26(1):44-71. · 10.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Longer/branched-chain polyamines are unique polycations found in thermophiles. N(4)-aminopropylspermine is considered a major polyamine in Thermococcus kodakarensis. To determine whether a quaternary branched penta-amine, N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine, an isomer of N(4)-aminopropylspermine, was also present, acid-extracted cytoplasmic polyamines were analyzed by HPLC, GC, and GC-MS. N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine was an abundant cytoplasmic polyamine in this species. To identify the enzyme that catalyzes N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine synthesis, the active fraction was concentrated from the cytoplasm and analyzed by LIT-TOFMS with ESI-trap instrument following analysis by MASCOT database. TK0545, TK0548, TK0967, and TK1691 were identified as candidate enzymes and the corresponding genes were individually cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant forms were purified and their N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine synthesis activity was measured. Of the four candidates, TK1691 (BpsA) was found to synthesize N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine from spermidine via N(4)-aminopropylspermidine. Compared with wild-type, the bpsA disrupted strain DBP1 grew at 85°C with a slightly longer lag phase, but was unable to grow at 93°C. HPLC analysis showed that both N(4)-aminopropylspermidine and N(4)-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine were absent from the DBP1 strain grown at 85°C, demonstrating that the branched-chain polyamine synthesized by BpsA is important for cell growth at 93°C. Sequence comparison with orthologs from various microorganisms indicated that BpsA differed from other known aminopropyltransferases that produce spermidine and spermine. BpsA orthologs were found only in thermophiles, both in archaea and bacteria, but were absent from mesophiles. These findings indicate that BpsA is a novel aminopropyltransferase essential for the synthesis of branched-chain polyamines, enabling thermophiles to grow in high temperature environments.Journal of bacteriology 03/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor