Absence of acrylamide-induced genotoxicity in CYP2E1-null mice: evidence consistent with a glycidamide-mediated effect.
ABSTRACT Acrylamide, an animal carcinogen and germ cell mutagen present at low (ppm) levels in heated carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs, is oxidized by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to the epoxide glycidamide, which is believed to be responsible for the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of acrylamide. We recently reported a comparison of the effects of acrylamide on the genetic integrity of germ cells of male wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice [B.I. Ghanayem, K.L. Witt, L. El-Hadri, U. Hoffler, G.E. Kissling, M.D. Shelby, J.B. Bishop, Comparison of germ-cell mutagenicity in male CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice treated with acrylamide: evidence supporting a glycidamide-mediated effect, Biol. Reprod. 72 (2005) 157-163]. In those experiments, dose-related increases in dominant lethal mutations were detected in uterine contents of female mice mated to acrylamide-treated wild-type males but not CYP2E1-null males, clearly implicating CYP2E1-mediated formation of glycidamide in the induction of genetic damage in male germ cells. We hypothesized that acrylamide-induced somatic cell damage is also caused by glycidamide. Therefore, to examine this hypothesis, female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice were administered acrylamide (0, 25, 50mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection once daily for 5 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the final treatment, blood and tissue samples were collected. Erythrocyte micronucleus frequencies were determined using flow cytometry and DNA damage was assessed in leukocytes, liver, and lung using the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Results were consistent with the earlier observations in male germ cells: significant dose-related increases in micronucleated erythrocytes and DNA damage in somatic cells were induced in acrylamide-treated wild-type but not in the CYP2E1-null mice. These results support the hypothesis that genetic damage in somatic and germ cells of mice-treated with acrylamide is dependent upon metabolism of the parent compound by CYP2E1. This dependency on metabolism has implications for the assessment of human risks resulting from occupational or dietary exposure to acrylamide. CYP2E1 polymorphisms and variability in CYP2E1 activity associated with, for example, diabetes, obesity, starvation, and alcohol consumption, may result in altered metabolic efficiencies leading to differential susceptibilities to acrylamide toxicities in humans.
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ABSTRACT: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been observed. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and lung cancer risk is not known. We conducted a case-cohort study among 58 279 men and 62 573 women (aged 55-69 years) in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Intakes of acrylamide-containing foods and risk factors for cancer were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire at baseline in 1986 and combined with acrylamide levels in relevant Dutch foods to assess total dietary acrylamide intake. The number of person-years at risk was estimated by using a random sample of participants from the total cohort that was chosen at baseline (n = 5000). Incident lung cancer cases in the total cohort were detected by computerized record linkages to the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Netherlands Pathology Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer associated with acrylamide intakes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models that controlled for smoking (status, quantity, and duration) and other lung cancer risk factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. After 13.3 years of follow-up (September 17, 1986 up to January 1, 2000) there were 2649 cases of primary, histologically verified lung cancer (International Classification of Diseases for Oncology-3 code: C34) when cases with prevalent cancer at baseline (other than skin cancer) were excluded. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of lung cancer for a 10-microg/d increment of acrylamide intake was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.96 to 1.11) for men and 0.82 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.96) for women. The hazard ratio of lung cancer for the highest (median intake [microg/d]: men = 37.6 and women = 36.8) vs the lowest (median intake [microg/d]: men = 10.8 and women = 9.5) quintile of acrylamide intake was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.77 to 1.39, P(trend) = .85) for men and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.76, P(trend) = .01) for women. The inverse association in women was strongest for adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of intake = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.78; P(trend) = .01). Acrylamide intake was not associated with lung cancer risk in men but was inversely associated in women, most strongly for adenocarcinoma. This finding suggests that acrylamide is involved in human carcinogenesis through pathways other than genotoxicity.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 05/2009; 101(9):651-62. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, was recently detected in various heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. Epidemiologic studies on the relation with cancer have been few and largely negative. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between dietary acrylamide intake and renal cell, bladder, and prostate cancers. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 y. At baseline (1986), a random subcohort of 5000 participants was selected for a case-cohort analysis approach using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Acrylamide intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and was based on chemical analysis of all relevant Dutch foods. After 13.3 y of follow-up, 339, 1210, and 2246 cases of renal cell, bladder, and prostate cancer, respectively, were available for analysis. Compared with the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (mean intake: 9.5 microg/d), multivariable-adjusted hazard rates for renal cell, bladder, and prostate cancer in the highest quintile (mean intake: 40.8 microg/d) were 1.59 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.30; P for trend = 0.04), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.15; P for trend = 0.60), and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.30; P for trend = 0.69), respectively. There was an inverse nonsignificant trend for advanced prostate cancer in never smokers. We found some indications for a positive association between dietary acrylamide and renal cell cancer risk. There were no positive associations with bladder and prostate cancer risk.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2008; 87(5):1428-38. · 6.67 Impact Factor
Article: Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies: the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in many everyday foods. Since the finding of its presence in foods in 2002, epidemiological studies have found some suggestive associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and the risk of various cancers. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate for the first time the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of several histological subtypes of lymphatic malignancies. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 120,852 men and women followed-up since September 1986. The number of person years at risk was estimated by using a random sample of participants from the total cohort that was chosen at baseline (n =5,000). Acrylamide intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire combined with acrylamide data for Dutch foods. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for acrylamide intake as a continuous variable as well as in categories (quintiles and tertiles), for men and women separately and for never-smokers, using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 1,233 microscopically confirmed cases of lymphatic malignancies were available for multivariable-adjusted analysis. For multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma, HRs for men were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.27) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.61) per 10 µg acrylamide/day increment, respectively. For never-smoking men, the HR for multiple myeloma was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.85). No associations were observed for women. We found indications that acrylamide may increase the risk of multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma in men. This is the first epidemiological study to investigate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies, and more research into these observed associations is warranted.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38016. · 4.09 Impact Factor