Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obesity
ABSTRACT Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents. It is associated with severe metabolic abnormalities and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adipose tissue secretes a great number of hormones and cytokines that not only regulate substrate metabolism but may deeply and negatively influence endothelial physiology, a condition which may lead to the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, the physiology of the endothelium is summarised and the mechanisms by which obesity, through the secretory products of adipose tissue, influences endothelial function are explained. A short description of methodological approaches to diagnose endothelial dysfunction is presented. The possible pathogenetic links between obesity and cardiovascular disease, mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are described as well.
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ABSTRACT: L’endotelio modula la funzione e la struttura vascolare producendo ossido nitrico (NO). L’obesità addominale si associa a disfunzione endoteliale attraverso meccanismi indiretti (associazione con fattori di rischio cardiovascolare) e diretti, producendo adipochine pro-infiammatorie che inducono stress ossidativo e riducono la biodisponibilità di NO. Il calo ponderale e lo stile di vita migliorano la funzione endoteliale negli obesi, un effetto in parte legato alla riduzione dell’infiammazione.06/2014; 15(3):130-134. DOI:10.1007/s40619-014-0045-6
Frontiers in Physiology 02/2015; 6:32. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2015.00032
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major health burden with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In relation to this, adipose tissue secreted factors termed "adipokines" have been reported to modulate endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on two of the most abundant circulating adipokines, that is, leptin and adiponectin, in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Leptin has been documented to influence a multitude of organ systems, that is, central nervous system (appetite regulation, satiety factor) and cardiovascular system (endothelial dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis). Adiponectin, circulating at a much higher concentration, exists in different molecular weight forms, essentially made up of the collagenous fraction and a globular domain, the latter being investigated minimally for its involvement in proinflammatory processes including activation of NF-κβ and endothelial adhesion molecules. The opposing actions of the two forms of adiponectin in endothelial cells have been recently demonstrated. Additionally, a local and systemic change to multimeric forms of adiponectin has gained importance. Thus detailed investigations on the potential interplay between these adipokines would likely result in better understanding of the missing links connecting CVD, adipokines, and obesity.Journal of Diabetes Research 01/2015; 2015:1-12. DOI:10.1155/2015/648239 · 3.54 Impact Factor