Differences in colorectal cancer stage and survival by race and ethnicity

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 08/2005; 104(3):629-39. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21204
Source: PubMed


In the United States, blacks with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) presented with more advanced-stage disease and had higher mortality rates compared with non-Hispanic whites. Data regarding other races/ethnicities were limited, especially for Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic white subgroups.
Using data from 11 population-based cancer registries that participate in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, the authors evaluated the relation among 18 different races/ethnicities and disease stage and mortality rates among 154,103 subjects diagnosed with CRC from 1988 to 2000.
Compared with non-Hispanic whites, blacks, American Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Hawaiians, Mexicans, South/Central Americans, and Puerto Ricans were 10-60% more likely to be diagnosed with Stage III or IV CRC. Alternatively, Japanese had a 20% lower risk of advanced-stage CRC. With respect to mortality rates, blacks, American Indians, Hawaiians, and Mexicans had a 20-30% greater risk of mortality, whereas Chinese, Japanese, and Indians/Pakistanis had a 10-40 % lower risk.
The authors observed numerous racial/ethnic disparities in the risks of advanced-stage cancer and mortality among patients with CRC, and there was considerable variation in these risks across Asian/Pacific Islander and Hispanic white subgroups. Although the etiology of these disparities was multifactorial, developing screening and treatment programs that target racial/ethnic populations with elevated risks of poor CRC outcomes may be an important means of reducing these disparities.

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    • "However, a relatively recent study reported that despite receiving equal treatment and after controlling for known prognostic factors, AAs with high-grade tumors were three times more likely to die as a result of CRC than Caucasian Americans (CAs) with high-grade tumors (2). The most recent population-based study shows a 30–50% higher rate of disease-specific mortality after diagnosis among AAs than in CAs (3–8) and this disparity between the 2 groups has greatly widened in recent years. This has occurred despite an increase of CRC screening for both groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality are higher in African Americans (AAs) than in Caucasian Americans (CAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be dysregulated in colonic and other neoplasias. The aim of this exploratory study was to identify candidate miRNAs that could contribute to potential biological differences between AA and CA colon cancers. Total RNA was isolated from tumor and paired adjacent normal colon tissue from 30 AA and 31 CA colon cancer patients archived at Stony Brook University (SBU) and Washington University (WU)‑St. Louis Medical Center. miRNA profiles were determined by probing human genome-wide miRNA arrays with RNA isolated from each sample. Using repeated measures analysis of variance (RANOVA), miRNAs were selected that exhibited significant (p<0.05) interactions between race and tumor or significant (fold change >1.5, p<0.05) main effects of race and/or tumor. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was used to confirm miRNAs identified by microarray analysis. Candidate miRNA targets were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. RANOVA results indicated that miR-182, miR152, miR-204, miR-222 and miR-202 exhibited significant race and tumor main effects. Of these miRNAs, q-PCR analysis confirmed that miR-182 was upregulated in AA vs. CA tumors and exhibited significant race:tumor interaction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the levels of FOXO1 and FOXO3A, two potential miR-182 targets, are reduced in AA tumors. miRNAs may play a role in the differences between AA and CA colon cancer. Specifically, differences in miRNA expression levels of miR-182 may contribute to decreased survival in AA colon cancer patients.
    International Journal of Oncology 05/2014; 45(2). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2469 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Racial/ethnic disparities in CRC survival has been extensively documented in the scientific literature (Chien et al, 2005; Fenton et al, 2009; Robbins et al, 2012). We found that most Asian patients had better DSS than did NHW. "
    M Yi · J Xu · P Liu · G J Chang · X L Du · C-Y Hu · Y Song · J He · Y Ren · Y Wei · J Yang · K K Hunt · X Li
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) vary between ethnic groups in the United States. However, few studies have assessed differences among Asian subgroups. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify patients with invasive CRC between 1988 and 2008. Differences in clinicopathologic features, and DSS rates were compared among Asian subgroups. The California Health Interview Survey was used to examine risk factors and screening patterns for CRC. Results: The study included 359 374 patients with 8.4% Asian. Patients in all Asian subgroups were younger (median: 68 years) at diagnosis than non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients (median: 72 years). Most Asian subgroups, except Hawaiians, had better DSS than NHW patients although Asian subgroups had more advanced disease than NHW. Indian/Pakistani patients had a higher 5-year DSS than other Asian subgroups. Obesity proportions were lower in Asian subgroups (<50.2%) than in NHW (59.8%). Vietnamese men and Korean women had the lowest proportions of CRC screening. Advance tumour stages were highly associated with worse DSS in each ethnicity group. High tumour grades were associated with worse DSS in NHW, Filipino, and Chinese. Older age at diagnosis was associated with worse DSS in most ethnicity groups except Hawaiian and Vietnamese. Conclusion: Disparities exist between Asians and NHW with CRC, and among various Asian subgroups. Differences in cancer clinicopathologic features, patients' behavioural habits, lifestyle, and screening patterns may explain some differences in CRC survival observed among ethnic groups.
    British Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 108(7). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.97 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "There is about a 20% greater incidence of, and approximately a 40% greater death rate from, colorectal cancer in African American, compared to Caucasian, patients 7, 9, 20, 21. These disparities reflect advanced stage at diagnosis, socioeconomic factors, and differences in disease management 6-9, 22-24. However, beyond these parameters which influence overall disease outcomes, there are racial differences in stage-specific outcomes 6, 8, 9, 25. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metastatic disease is the principle cause of death from colorectal cancer. In that context, the most significant indicator of overall survival and therapeutic response to adjuvant chemotherapy is the presence of metastatic tumor cells in regional lymph nodes. Although histopathologic analysis of lymph nodes is central to all colorectal cancer staging paradigms, its prognostic and predictive value is limited. Indeed, about 30% of patients with histopathology-negative lymph nodes (pN0) die from metastatic disease, reflected by microscopic lymph node metastases that are overlooked by standard techniques. These unrecognized tumor cells are especially important when considering racial disparities in outcomes in colorectal cancer patients, where blacks with lymph node-negative disease have the largest discrepancies in outcomes, with more than 40% excess mortality compared to Caucasian patients. However, the significance of tumor cells in regional lymph nodes remains uncertain, and approximately 50% of colorectal cancer patients with nodal metastases detected by histopathology remain free of recurrent disease. Accurate identification of occult metastases in regional lymph nodes, and defining their value as prognostic markers of recurrence risk and predictive markers of response to adjuvant chemotherapy remains one challenge in the management of colorectal cancer patients. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a receptor which is expressed primarily in intestinal cells normally, but is universally over-expressed by colorectal cancer cells, has been validated to detect prognostically significant occult metastases using quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Biomarker validation was achieved through a prospective, multicenter, blinded clinical trial. In that trial, occult tumor burden estimated across all regional lymph nodes by GUCY2C RT-qPCR predicted clinical outcomes, identifying node-negative patients with a low (near zero) risk, and those with >80% risk, of developing disease recurrence. Moreover, there was disproportionately higher occult tumor burden in black, compared to white, patients which contributes to racial disparities in outcomes in colorectal cancer. The diagnostic paradigm quantifying occult tumor burden using GUCY2C qRT-PCR is positioned to reduce racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.
    Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 4(3):193-9. DOI:10.7150/jca.5830 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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