Antiviral activity of lamivudine in salvage therapy for multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection.
ABSTRACT Maximum suppression of virus replication is often not achievable for persons infected with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Available data suggest that lamivudine contributes to partial viral suppression, despite the presence of M184V mutations and high-level phenotypic lamivudine resistance.
Selective lamivudine withdrawal was studied in 6 subjects who had incomplete viral suppression during antiretroviral treatment for multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection.
Plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA increased to 0.5 log(10) copies/mL above baseline 6 weeks after the withdrawal of lamivudine treatment (P=.04), even though reversion of lamivudine resistance was not yet detected. Early increases in plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA after lamivudine withdrawal were associated with the presence of the T215Y/F mutation and broad phenotypic resistance to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors at baseline. Genotypic and phenotypic reversion of lamivudine resistance was detected in 4 subjects 8-14 weeks after withdrawal of lamivudine therapy. The duration of lamivudine withdrawal ranged from 8 to 22 weeks; all subjects resumed lamivudine treatment. Plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA were 0.6 log(10) copies/mL above baseline (P=.03) when lamivudine therapy was resumed. After the resumption of lamivudine treatment, plasma HIV RNA levels decreased to baseline levels in 3 subjects but remained elevated in 3 subjects who had evolution of increased antiretroviral drug resistance during the period of lamivudine withdrawal. Safety concerns raised by this latter finding led to permanent closure of the study.
In select cases of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection, lamivudine contributes to suppression of HIV-1 replication, despite the presence of M184V mutations and lamivudine resistance.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the virological and immunological changes occurring in failing HIV-1 infected patients undergoing treatment interruption or lamivudine monotherapy (the E-184V Study). Associations were sought between the de-selection of individual reverse transcriptase and protease resistance mutations and replication capacity recovery, HIV-RNA changes, and immunological changes. The replication capacity recovery was defined as the ratio between the replication capacity at weeks 24 or 48, and that measured at baseline. The replication capacity recovery, which was evaluable in 21 patients at week 24 and in 18 at week 48, was significantly higher in the treatment interruption than in the lamivudine group at week 24 (P = 0.002). Forty-eight week replication capacity recovery was greater when the 184V (P = 0.023), the 41L (P = 0.02), or the 215Y mutation (P = 0.037) were deselected at week 12. A greater reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at week 48 (P = 0.038) was observed as the 184V mutation was deselected and the de-selection of the 184V mutation at week 12 was the only independent predictor of the change of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at week 48 from baseline at multivariable analysis (F-value = 6.72, P = 0.021). In conclusion, among patients undergoing treatment interruption or lamivudine monotherapy, the recovery of HIV-1 replication capacity was associated with the de-selection of reverse transcriptase mutations. The de-selection of the 184V mutation predicts independently a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio.Journal of Medical Virology 02/2008; 80(2):201-8. DOI:10.1002/jmv.21085 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The sustainable use of HAART within the sub-Saharan and other developing world settings faces the emerging challenge of drug resistance. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) form the backbone of HAART and preserving their "antiviral efficacy" is thus critical to sustainable HAART use. A systematic review of the "mechanisms of evolution" of resistance to NRTI at the HIV genome level, and the phenotypic manifestations on drug pharmacokinetics was done. This paper provides an evidence based account of how the knowledge of pharmacogenomics may be exploited to tackle NRTI resistance within limited resource.The Open AIDS Journal 02/2008; 2(1):78-81. DOI:10.2174/1874613600802010078
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ABSTRACT: We reported previously that while prolonged tenofovir monotherapy of macaques infected with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) resulted invariably in the emergence of viral mutants with reduced in vitro drug susceptibility and a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase, some animals controlled virus replication for years. Transient CD8+ cell depletion or short-term tenofovir interruption within 1 to 5 years of treatment demonstrated that a combination of CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses and continued tenofovir therapy was required for sustained suppression of viremia. We report here follow-up data on 5 such animals that received tenofovir for 8 to 14 years. Although one animal had a gradual increase in viremia from 3 years onwards, the other 4 tenofovir-treated animals maintained undetectable viremia with occasional viral blips (≤ 300 RNA copies/ml plasma). When tenofovir was withdrawn after 8 to 10 years from three animals with undetectable viremia, the pattern of occasional episodes of low viremia (≤ 3600 RNA/ml plasma) continued throughout the 10-month follow-up period. These animals had low virus levels in lymphoid tissues, and evidence of multiple SIV-specific immune responses. Under certain conditions (i.e., prolonged antiviral therapy initiated early after infection; viral mutants with reduced drug susceptibility) a virus-host balance characterized by strong immunologic control of virus replication can be achieved. Although further research is needed to translate these findings into clinical applications, these observations provide hope for a functional cure of HIV infection via immunotherapeutic strategies that boost antiviral immunity and reduce the need for continuous antiretroviral therapy.Retrovirology 07/2012; 9:57. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-9-57 · 4.77 Impact Factor