Oral glucose tolerance testing at gestational weeks <= 16 could predict or exclude subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus during the current pregnancy in high risk group
ABSTRACT An oral glucose tolerance test with a result that is negative but close to the diagnostic cut-off in early pregnancy was hypothesized to serve as a predictor of subsequent gestational diabetes in a high risk group. The aim of the study was to determine those cut-off values of OGTT at gestational weeks < or =16, which can predict or exclude subsequent onset of GDM in a high risk group.
Pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes (n = 163) underwent a 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at gestational weeks < or =16 were analyzed in this study. In the event of a negative result, subsequent oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at gestational weeks 24-28 and 32-34. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive and negative predictive values and the Odds ratio of the best cut-off values of fasting and postload glucose levels were calculated.
The best cut-off values to exclude subsequent GDM for fasting and postload glucose were 5.0 and 6.2 mmol/l, respectively. In combination, the best cut-off values were 5.3 mmol/l for fasting and 6.8 mmol/l for postload glucose, with negative predictive values of 0.97 and 0.71 and sensitivities of 96.9 and 86.3 at gestational weeks 24-28 and 32-34, respectively. Combination of these cut-off values with obesity proved to be very predictive for gestational diabetes by gestational weeks 32-34, with an Odds ratio of 6.0 [95% confidence interval: 1.7-21.0].
With regard to the very high negative predictive value of the method, pregnant women with glucose levels of < or =5.3 mmol/l at fasting and of < or = 6.8 mmol/l at postload in gestational weeks < or =16 should undergo subsequent oral glucose tolerance testing merely at gestational weeks 32-34. Approximately a quarter (24.5%) of the pregnant women at risk of gestational diabetes satisfied these criteria.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the relationship between the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and pregnancy outcome after women's first IVF cycle. Prospective study. Infertility center at a private tertiary hospital in Taiwan. All 280 patients who went through their initial IVF cycle at the hospital between January 2004 and April 2005 were included in the study. Two hundred eighty patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test before entering an IVF cycle; all pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy complications were recorded. The relationships between glycemic parameters and insulin resistance and IVF pregnancy outcome were determined. Linear regression between birth weight and levels of preconception fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, and 2-hour insulin was performed. One hundred twenty patients conceived after their initial IVF cycle. Twenty-five of 89 ongoing pregnancies had various complications. The most common pregnancy complication was preterm birth (n = 11). These patients had higher body mass index (23.46 vs. 20.97 kg/m(2)); higher fasting glucose (107.36 vs. 95.14 mg/dL), fasting insulin (10.55 vs. 6.20 microIU/mL), and 2-hour glucose (120.55 vs. 99.97 mg/dL) levels; and higher homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (3.43 vs. 1.45) than did patients with full-term pregnancies. Linear regression between birth weight and the fasting glucose level and between birth weight and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance had positive correlations. Before proceeding with IVF, preconception oral glucose tolerance testing is suggested, especially in patients with higher body mass index, to help identify groups who are at high risk for preterm birth.Fertility and sterility 12/2007; 90(3):613-8. DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.07.1289 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate if any single plasma glucose level from the four values of the normal 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in early pregnancy (< or =20 weeks of gestation) could predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed from a second OGTT in late pregnancy (28-32 weeks). Glucose levels of pregnant women at high-risk for GDM, who had had a normal early OGTT, and who underwent the second test in late pregnancy, were studied. Each of the four plasma glucose values of the early OGTT was determined for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). The receiver operating characteristic curves of these four OGTT values were then constructed to find the optimal value to predict late-onset GDM. Of 193 pregnant women who had had a normal early OGTT, 154 also had a normal OGTT in late pregnancy while 39 had an abnormal test and were diagnosed with GDM. Among the four glucose values of the early OGTT, the 1-h value yielded the best diagnostic performance to predict late-onset GDM. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and area under the curve achieved from its optimal cutoff level of > or =155 mg/dL (8.6 mmol/L) were 89.7%, 64.3%, 38.9%, 96.1%, and 0.77, respectively. A 1-h glucose value > or =155 mg/dL at the early OGTT yielded the best diagnostic performance. However, the low specificity and PPV rendered it suboptimal to predict late-onset GDM. Nevertheless, a considerable number of high-risk women could avoid the second OGTT in late pregnancy due to its high sensitivity and NPV.Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 06/2008; 34(3):331-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1447-0756.2007.00693.x · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate, in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes (GDM), the longitudinal changes of adiponectin, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and to assess their independent value as risk factors for the development of GDM. Fifty women at beginning of pregnancy were studied. Adiponectin, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA) and lipid panel were measured at 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. Twelve patients developed GDM. In both groups, GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT), adiponectin decreased from 1st to 2nd and 3rd trimesters by about 5 and 20% (GDM, p < 0.05), and of about 17 and 25% in NGT (p < 0.05), respectively. Values observed in NGT were similar to those of GDM (F = 9.401; p = 0.238). The Cox regression model identified as the strongest independent risk factor for GDM HOMA over 1.24 (RR = 14.12) at 1st trimester, fasting glycaemia over 87 mg/dl (RR = 42.68) triglycerides over 158 mg/dl (RR = 5.87) and body mass index (BMI) over 27 kg/m(2) (RR = 4.38) at 2nd trimester. Adiponectin in high-risk women is characterised by a constant reduction throughout gestation, irrespective of the development of GDM. HOMA, fasting glycaemia, triglycerides and BMI, but not adiponectin are independent predictors of GDM.Gynecological Endocrinology 02/2010; 26(7):539-45. DOI:10.3109/09513591003632084 · 1.14 Impact Factor