Elective intestinal operations in infants and children without mechanical bowel preparation: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT Preoperative mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) for elective intestinal operations has been a long accepted practice. However, MBP is often unpleasant and time-consuming for patients, and clinical trials in adults have not shown improved outcomes. We conducted this pilot study to test whether omitting MBP before elective intestinal operations in infants and children would increase the risk of infectious or anastomotic complications.
Retrospective review was performed of 143 patients who had an elective colon or distal small bowel procedure performed at our children's hospital between 1990 and 2003.
Thirty-three patients (No PREP) were managed by a single surgeon who routinely omitted MBP, whereas another 110 patients (PREP) were prepared with enemas, laxatives, or both. Both groups received 24 hours of preoperative dietary restriction to clear liquids and perioperative parenteral antibiotics. The No PREP group had one anastomotic leak and no wound infections, whereas the PREP group had 2 anastomotic leaks and 1 wound infection (P = .58). These results occurred despite greater duration of antibiotic therapy and incidence of delayed wound closures in the PREP group.
The results of this pilot study suggest that omitting MBP before elective intestinal operations in infants and children carries no increased risk of infectious or anastomotic complications. Eliminating MBP may reduce health care costs and inconvenience to patients. These findings warrant a large, prospective, randomized clinical trial to validate our findings and to investigate further the necessity of MBP in the pediatric population.
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ABSTRACT: This goal of this review was to examine the clinical evidence in support of commonly utilized measures intended to reduce complications following elective colorectal surgery.Data sourceLiterature searches were performed to identify relevant studies from Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane databases.Study selectionThe American Pediatric Surgery Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee selected eight questions to address this topic systematically in the context of three management areas: 1) appropriate utilization of systemic antibiotics for colorectal procedures, 2) reduction of stool burden through mechanical bowel preparation, and 3) intraluminal gut decontamination through use of enteral non-absorbable antibiotics. Primary outcomes of interest included the occurrence of infectious and mechanical complications related to stool burden and intraluminal bacterial concentration (incisional surgical site infection, anastomotic leakage, and intra-abdominal abscess).ResultsThe evidence in support of each management category was systematically reviewed, graded, and summarized in the context of the review’s primary outcomes. Practice recommendations were made as deemed appropriate by the Committee.Conclusions Clinical evidence in support of interventions to reduce infectious complications following colorectal surgery is derived almost exclusively from the adult literature. High-quality evidence to guide clinical practice in children is sorely needed, as the available data may have only limited relevance to pediatric colorectal diseases.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/2014; 50(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.11.028 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In response to studies in adults that have failed to demonstrate a benefit for mechanical bowel preparation in colonic surgery, we sought to evaluate the utility of mechanical bowel preparation in a multicenter, retrospective study of children who underwent colostomy takedown. The records of 272 children who underwent colostomy takedown at 3 large children's hospitals were reviewed, and the utilization of mechanical bowel preparation and perioperative antibiotics was noted. Length of stay and the incidences of wound, anastomotic, and other complications were compared. A polyethylene glycol bowel prep was administered to 187 children. All subjects received perioperative, intravenous antibiotics, and 52% of those with bowel preps received preoperative oral antibiotics. Subjects in the bowel prep group had a significantly higher incidence of wound infection (P = .04) and longer length of stay (P = .05). Oral antibiotics did not affect outcome. The use of a mechanical bowel preparation in children before colostomy takedown was associated with a greater risk for wound infection, no protection from other complications, and a longer length of stay. This suggests that bowel preparation may be safely omitted in many children who undergo colonic surgery, thereby reducing cost and discomfort.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 01/2012; 47(1):190-3. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.10.044 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To retrospectively assess early postoperative complications in augmentation cystoplasty without preoperative mechanical bowel preparation (MBP). Between May 1987 and May 2006, 162 cystoplasties were performed in 158 children. The segments used were: sigmoid colon (81.5%), ileum (13%), and ileocecum (5.5%). The mean age was 8.65 years (range 2.1-22.7 years). No preoperative MBP of any kind was used in any of the patients and all of them received antibiotics preoperatively and postoperatively. No intraoperative complications related to the procedure were reported. The mean hospital stay was 9.48 days (range 4-30 days). The mean time to intake of oral fluids was 94.77 h (range 48-288 h). Postoperative complications occurred in 9.87%: urinary fistula was the most common (2.4%); only 3 patients presented wound infection (1.85%); 5 patients required reoperative surgery (hemoperitoneum, patch necrosis and 3 cases of urinary peritonitis); 1 patient presented an intra-abdominal abscess that resolved with antibiotic treatment. Preoperative MBP can be omitted in children that require augmentation cystoplasty without an increased risk of infectious or anastomotic complications. Further prospective, randomized clinical trials should be carried out in order to validate our findings in the pediatric population.Journal of pediatric urology 08/2011; 8(2):201-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2011.01.015 · 1.41 Impact Factor