Exposure to indoor allergens in day-care facilities: results from 2 North Carolina counties.
ABSTRACT With 63% of US children under 5 years of age in regular child care, day-care facilities could be an important source of exposure to indoor allergens.
This study examined levels of 7 indoor allergens in 89 day-care facilities in 2 North Carolina counties.
At each facility, a questionnaire was administered, observations were made, and vacuumed dust samples were collected from carpeted and noncarpeted areas of one room. Allergen concentrations were measured with antibody-based ELISAs.
Each allergen was detected in a majority of facilities (52% to 100%). Geometric mean concentrations were 5.19 mug/g for Alternaria alternata , 2.06 mug/g for Can f 1, 1.43 microg/g for Fel d 1, 0.21 U/g for Bla g 1, 0.20 microg/g for Der p 1, 0.10 microg/g for Der f 1, and 0.01 microg/g for Mus m 1. Concentrations for 5 of the 7 allergens were not statistically different from concentrations found in southern US homes sampled in the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. In rooms with carpet and hard-surfaced flooring, levels of A alternata , Can f 1, Der f 1, Der p 1, and Fel d 1 were statistically higher on carpet.
In this survey of day-care facilities in North Carolina, detectable levels of indoor allergens were commonly found. For many young children and day-care staff, day-care facilities might be a source of clinically relevant exposures to indoor allergens.
- SourceAvailable from: Martin D Chapman[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exposure and sensitization to indoor allergens is a major cause of asthma. This study investigated the levels of house dust mite, cat, dog and cockroach allergens in the dust and air in hospitals and the effects of regular vacuum cleaning on allergen levels in hospital chairs. Der p 1, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Bla g 2 were measured in the dust collected by vacuuming upholstered chairs and a 1 m2 area of carpet and mattress in 14 hospitals. Air samples were collected using an air sampler (flow rate 60 L/min) on 10 separate days for 4 h in the outpatient department in one of the hospitals during busy clinics when patients were waiting for their appointments. In addition, dust samples were collected on four occasions, at 4-weekly intervals, from 36 fabric covered chairs in the outpatient area of a busy chest clinic by vacuuming each chair for 2 min. During the intervening weeks, 18 of the chairs (active group) were each cleaned by vacuuming for 1 min, three times per week. Der p 1, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Bla g 2 were assayed using monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. In total, 83 carpets, 69 mattresses and 42 upholstered chairs were sampled. The levels of dust mite allergen Der p 1 and cockroach allergen Bla g 2 found in the hospital setting were low. High levels of Fel d 1 (GM 22.9 microg/g, range 4.5-58) and Can f 1 (GM 21.6 microg/g, range 4-63) were found in upholstered chairs. Airborne Can f 1 was detected on every occasion (range 0.12-0.56 ng/m3), whilst detectable airborne Fel d 1 was found on 7 out of the 10 sampling days (range 0.09-0.22 ng/m3). Der p 1 and Bla g 2 were below the detection limit in all airborne samples. Following repeated vacuuming the mean cat and dog allergen levels decreased significantly (P<0.001) and were almost fivefold lower in the vacuumed chairs compared with the control group. Low levels of mite allergen are unlikely to be of any clinical significance to mite-sensitive asthmatic patients. However, upholstered chairs in hospitals constitute a significant reservoir of cat and dog allergen. Inhalation of airborne allergen in patients attending their hospital appointment may exacerbate asthma in those highly allergic to cats or dogs. These results question the wisdom of introducing soft furnishings and carpets into hospitals. Three-times weekly vacuuming significantly reduces allergen levels in upholstered chairs.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 01/1998; 28(1):53-9. · 4.79 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Concentrations of major allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) and D. farinae (Df), Derp I and Derf I, were determined in 183 dust samples of mattresses of 133 atopic and 50 nonatopic children by a sandwich-type ELISA. Atopic children and young adults living in houses with high levels of Derp I and Derf I (≥2000 ng/gm of dust) were found to have significantly higher serum IgE levels to Dpt and Df (p < 0.0001) compared to patients with low mite-allergen exposure. Washed leukocytes of 55 atopic children and 14 control subjects were investigated for in vitro histamine release to serial dilutions of Derp I; 86% of highly exposed (≥10,000 ng/gm) children demonstrated positive histamine release in response to Derp I compared to 17% in the group with very low exposure (<400 ng/gm). There was a positive correlation between basophil sensitivity (rs = 0.6; p < 0.0001) and reactivity (rs = 0.54; p < 0.0001) to Derp I and mite-allergen exposure. The relative risk for sensitization in the highly exposed group versus the group with very low exposure was sevenfold to 32-fold increased. We conclude that high concentrations of mite allergen (≥2000 ng/gm) increase the risk of specific sensitization in atopic children and young adults and thus may facilitate allergic airway disease.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 12/1989; · 12.05 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens is known to be associated with allergic asthma. This study evaluated the prevalence and distribution of six indoor allergens in 956 dust samples obtained from homes, childcare centres, schools, and a hospital in tropical Singapore. Seasonality of mite allergens was also assessed. The major allergens of the Dermatophagoides spp. dust mites, Der p 1 and Der f 1; major cat and dog allergens, Can f 1 (dog) and Fel d 1 (cat); and cockroach, Bla g 1, were measured by specific enzyme immunoassays. Allergen levels of the storage mite, Blomia tropicalis (Blo t), were measured by a fluorescent allergosorbent test (FAST) inhibition assay. Our results showed that homes had significantly higher concentrations and prevalence of allergens compared with the other locations, except for Bla g 1, where higher mean levels were found in schools. Within the homes, the highest concentrations of mite allergens were found in mattresses (geometric mean: 1.2 microg/g dust Der p 1; 2717 Allergen Units per gram dust [AU/g] Blo t), and carpets (1.5 microg/g Der p 1; 1620 AU/g Blo t), whilst Bla g 1 was mainly concentrated in the storerooms (geometric mean = 3.5 units/g) and kitchens (geometric mean = 5.1 units/g). The major cat and dog allergens were well distributed and not confined to homes with pets. Their highest levels were found in dust of soft furnishings, carpets and mattresses. There was an absence of significant seasonal variation in Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t levels in the homes over a 1 year period. The results indicate that compared with public places, the home consitutes a major reservior of indoor allergens. Allergens of the storage mite, B. tropicalis, should be considered as a major allergenic component of dust in Singapore.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 09/1997; 27(8):876-85. · 4.79 Impact Factor