Exposure to indoor allergens in day-care facilities: results from 2 North Carolina counties.

Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, MD, USA.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.25). 08/2005; 116(1):133-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With 63% of US children under 5 years of age in regular child care, day-care facilities could be an important source of exposure to indoor allergens.
This study examined levels of 7 indoor allergens in 89 day-care facilities in 2 North Carolina counties.
At each facility, a questionnaire was administered, observations were made, and vacuumed dust samples were collected from carpeted and noncarpeted areas of one room. Allergen concentrations were measured with antibody-based ELISAs.
Each allergen was detected in a majority of facilities (52% to 100%). Geometric mean concentrations were 5.19 mug/g for Alternaria alternata , 2.06 mug/g for Can f 1, 1.43 microg/g for Fel d 1, 0.21 U/g for Bla g 1, 0.20 microg/g for Der p 1, 0.10 microg/g for Der f 1, and 0.01 microg/g for Mus m 1. Concentrations for 5 of the 7 allergens were not statistically different from concentrations found in southern US homes sampled in the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. In rooms with carpet and hard-surfaced flooring, levels of A alternata , Can f 1, Der f 1, Der p 1, and Fel d 1 were statistically higher on carpet.
In this survey of day-care facilities in North Carolina, detectable levels of indoor allergens were commonly found. For many young children and day-care staff, day-care facilities might be a source of clinically relevant exposures to indoor allergens.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz 05/2014; 57(5):585-592. · 0.72 Impact Factor
  • Intelligent Buildings International 12/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Cat allergen is widely distributed in homes and schools; allergic sensitisation is common.Objective To develop a model of cat allergen nasal challenge to establish dose-response and time-course characteristics and investigate local and systemic biomarkers of allergic inflammation.Methods Nineteen cat-allergic individuals underwent titrated nasal challenge, range 0.243 to 14.6 μg/mL Fel d1, and matched diluent-only provocation. Clinical response to 8 hours was assessed by symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF). Nasal fluid was collected using polyurethane sponges and analysed by ImmunoCAP and multiplex assays. Whole blood flow cytometry for basophil surface CD63, CD107a and CD203c was carried out at baseline and 6 hours post-challenge.ResultsA dose-response to allergen was seen in symptom scores and PNIF, maximal at 10,000 BU/mL (4.87μg/mL Fel d1), p<0.0001 vs. diluent. Nasal fluid tryptase was elevated at 5 minutes after challenge (p<0.05 vs. diluent); eotaxin, IL-4, -5, -9, and -13 were increased at 8 hours (p<0.05 to p<0.0001 vs. diluent); TSLP was undetectable, IL-10, IL-17A and IL-33 were unchanged compared to diluent challenge. Nasal fluid IL-5 and IL-13 correlated inversely with PNIF after challenge (IL-5, r=-0.79, p<0.0001; IL-13, r=-0.60, p=0.006). Surface expression of CD63 and CD107a was greater at 6 hours than at baseline, both in the presence (both p<0.05) and absence (CD63, p<0.01; CD107a, p<0.05) of in vitro allergen stimulation; no changes were seen on diluent challenge day.Conclusions Cat allergen nasal challenge produces local and systemic Th2-driven inflammatory responses and has potential as a surrogate outcome measure in clinical trials.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 10/2014; · 4.32 Impact Factor