Contamination of Retail Foods, Particularly Turkey, from Community Markets (Minnesota, 1999–2000) with Antimicrobial-Resistant and Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease (Impact Factor: 1.91). 02/2005; 2(1):38-49. DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2005.2.38
Source: PubMed


To assess the food supply as a possible vehicle for antimicrobial-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), we defined the prevalence, density, clonal diversity, virulence characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of E. coli among diverse retail food items. A microbiological survey was undertaken of 346 food items (vegetables, produce, beef, pork, chicken, and turkey) purchased as a convenience sample from 16 retail markets within the Minneapolis-St. Paul area in 1999-2000, with selective cultures for E. coli and extensive molecular and phenotypic characterization of E. coli isolates. Meats, particularly turkey products, were often extensively contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and ExPEC, to a much greater extent than were produce items, even those from farmer's markets. Moreover, meat-source E. coli differed substantially from produce-source E. coli with respect to phylogenetic background (more commonly from virulence-associated phylogenetic groups B2 or D), virulence genotype (more extensive), and antimicrobial resistance profile (more extensive). Molecular typing methods matched four turkey-source isolates to selected human clinical and fecal isolates representing the O7:K1:H-, O83:K1, and O73/O77:K52:H18 ("clonal group A") clonal groups of ExPEC. Meats purchased in grocery stores, particularly turkey products, are frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and ExPEC. Further study is needed regarding the origins and health consequences of these foodborne organisms, both to clarify the need for and to guide the possible development of appropriate regulatory and monitoring systems and preventive interventions.

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    • "Nevertheless, little is known about the distribution of integrons in E. coli isolated from commercial meat turkeys. Only a few studies have been carried throughout the world and most of them are focused on E. coli isolated from turkey meat (Johnson et al., 2005; Khaitsa et al., 2008; Cook et al., 2009; Soufi et al., 2009, 2011). To our knowledge, studies targeted at revealing the distribution and the gene cassette content of class 1 and 2 integrons in E. coli from intensive turkey flocks are not available in the literature. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study is aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons in 48 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from meat turkeys during 3 sequential production cycles. Thirty avian faecal E. coli (AFEC) from the first cycle were also analysed. Strains were tested for AMR against 25 antimicrobials by disk diffusion test and screened for the presence of integrons and associated gene cassettes by PCR followed by sequencing. Genetic relatedness of isolates was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracyclines, penicillins and sulphonamides in APEC and AFEC. Resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and phenicols was variable based on the antimicrobial drug and the isolate (APEC vs AFEC). Full susceptibility to colistin was detected. Multidrug resistance of up to 7 antimicrobial classes was exhibited by APEC (93.8%) and AFEC (100%). Nearly 44% of strains tested positive for class 1 and/or class 2 integrons containing the dfrA, aadA, and sat2 genes, alone or in combination, coding for streptomycin/spectinomycin, trimethoprim and streptothricin resistance, respectively. The estX and orfF genes of unknown function were also detected. A significant association was found between the presence of integrons and the resistance to aminoglycosides and potentiated sulphonamides. The results of this study showed that AMR, multidrug resistance and class 1 and 2 integrons are widespread among pathogenic and commensal E. coli from Italian turkeys. More attention should be addressed to limit the use of antimicrobials in turkeys and the antimicrobial resistance of turkey E. coli.
    Avian Pathology 07/2014; 43(5):1-30. DOI:10.1080/03079457.2014.943690 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    • "Data from our study showed a lower prevalence of ExPEC isolates in poultry meats than those reported by Johnson et al. (2003) who reported that about 21% of poultry samples were positive for ExPEC. Another study from the same research group reported an even higher proportion (46%) of retail poultry samples carrying ExPEC isolates (Johnson et al., 2005a). This difference in ExPEC prevalence in poultry meat may be attributed to several factors including initial colonization status of broilers before processing and the degree of fecal contamination of carcasses during the slaughter operation at the processing facility. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in the processing plants or environment. The objective of this study was to characterize ExPEC from retail poultry meats purchased from Alberta, Canada and to compare them with 12 human ExPEC representatives from major ExPEC lineages. Fifty-four virulence genes were screened by a set of multiplex PCRs in 700 E. coli from retail poultry meat samples. ExPEC was defined as the detection of at least two of the following virulence genes: papA/papC, sfa, kpsMT II and iutA. Genetic relationships between isolates were determined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifty-nine (8.4%) of the 700 poultry meat isolates were identified as ExPEC and were equally distributed among the phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. Isolates of phylogenetic group A possessed up to 12 virulence genes compared to 24 and 18 genes in phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. E. coli identified as ExPEC and recovered from poultry harbored as many virulence genes as those of human isolates. In addition to the iutA gene, siderophore-related iroN and fyuA were detected in combination with other virulence genes including those genes encoding for adhesion, protectin and toxin while the fimH, ompT, traT, uidA and vat were commonly detected in poultry ExPEC. The hemF, iss and cvaC genes were found in 40% of poultry ExPEC. All human ExPEC isolates harbored concnf (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 altering cytoskeleton and causing necrosis) and hlyD (hemolysin transport) genes which were not found in poultry ExPEC. PFGE analysis showed that a few poultry ExPEC isolates clustered with human ExPEC isolates at 55–70% similarity level. Comparing ExPEC isolated from retail poultry meats provides insight into their virulence potential and suggests that poultry associated ExPEC may be important for retail meat safety. Investigations into the ability of our poultry ExPEC to cause human infections are warranted.
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    • "The source of the strains responsible for these outbreaks has been linked to contaminated meat and other foods suggesting that the use of antimicrobials in food animal production may select for antibiotic-resistant strains of ExPEC. Moreover, a high prevalence of contamination by antimicrobial-resistant and ExPEC in retail foods has been reported, especially in turkey products purchased in grocery stores in retail markets from the United States (Johnson et al., 2005a). There are other examples of foods as reservoirs for AR bacteria that could be transmitted to humans via the food chain. "
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    ABSTRACT: The increase and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) over the past decade in human pathogens has become a worldwide health concern. Recent genomic and metagenomic studies in humans, animals, in food and in the environment have led to the discovery of a huge reservoir of AR genes called the resistome that could be mobilized and transferred from these sources to human pathogens. AR is a natural phenomenon developed by bacteria to protect antibiotic-producing bacteria from their own products and also to increase their survival in highly competitive microbial environments. Although antibiotics are used extensively in humans and animals, there is also considerable usage of antibiotics in agriculture, especially in animal feeds and aquaculture. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the sources of AR and the use of antibiotics in these reservoirs as selectors for emergence of AR bacteria in humans via the food chain.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 06/2013; 4:173. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00173 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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