Article

Osteocyte lacunae tissue strain in cortical bone.

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA.
Journal of Biomechanics (Impact Factor: 2.5). 02/2006; 39(9):1735-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.04.032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current theories suggest that bone modeling and remodeling are controlled at the cellular level through signals mediated by osteocytes. However, the specific signals to which bone cells respond are still unknown. Two primary theories are: (1) osteocytes are stimulated via the mechanical deformation of the perilacunar bone matrix and (2) osteocytes are stimulated via fluid flow generated shear stresses acting on osteocyte cell processes within canaliculi. Recently, much focus has been placed on fluid flow theories since in vitro experiments have shown that bone cells are more responsive to analytically estimated levels of fluid shear stress than to direct mechanical stretching using macroscopic strain levels measured on bone in vivo. However, due to the complex microstructural organization of bone, local perilacunar bone tissue strains potentially acting on osteocytes cannot be reliably estimated from macroscopic bone strain measurements. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify local perilacunar bone matrix strains due to macroscopically applied bone strains similar in magnitude to those that occur in vivo. Using a digital image correlation strain measurement technique, experimentally measured bone matrix strains around osteocyte lacunae resulting from macroscopic strains of approximately 2000 microstrain are significantly greater than macroscopic strain on average and can reach peak levels of over 30,000 microstrain locally. Average strain concentration factors ranged from 1.1 to 3.8, which is consistent with analytical and numerical estimates. This information should lead to a better understanding of how bone cells are affected by whole bone functional loading.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
112 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone can be viewed as a nano-fibrous composite with complex hierarchical structures. Its deformation and fracture behavior depend on both the local structure and the type of stress applied. In contrast to the extensive studies on bone fracture under compression and tension, there is a lack of knowledge on the fracture process under shear, a stress state often exists in hip fracture. This study investigated the mechanical behavior of human cortical bone under shear, with the focus on the relation between the fracture pattern and the microstructure. Iosipescu shear tests were performed on notched rectangular bar specimens made from human cortical bone. They were prepared at different angles (i.e. 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°) with respect to the long axis of the femoral shaft. The results showed that human cortical bone behaved as an anisotropic material under shear with the highest shear strength (~50MPa) obtained when shearing perpendicular to the Haversian systems or secondary osteons. Digital image correlation (DIC) analysis found that shear strain concentration bands had a close association with long bone axis with an average deviation of 11.8° to 18.5°. The fracture pattern was also greatly affected by the structure with the crack path generally following the direction of the long axes of osteons. More importantly, we observed unique peripheral arc-shaped microcracks within osteons, using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). They were generally long cracks that developed within a lamella without crossing the boundaries. This microcracking pattern clearly differed from that created under either compressive or tensile stress: these arc-shaped microcracks tended to be located away from the Haversian canal in early-stage damaged osteons, with ~70% developing in the outer third osteonal wall. Further study by second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy revealed a strong influence of the organization of collagen fibrils on shear microcracking. This study concluded that shear-induced microcracking of human cortical bone follows a unique pattern that is governed by the lamellar structure of the osteons.
    Bone 10/2014; · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone is a complex material which exhibits several hierarchical levels of structural organization. At the submicron-scale, the local tissue porosity gives rise to discontinuities in the bone matrix which have been shown to influence damage behavior. Computational tools to model the damage behavior of bone at different length scales are mostly based on finite element (FE) analysis, with a range of algorithms developed for this purpose. Although the local mechanical behavior of bone tissue is influenced by microstructural features such as bone canals and osteocyte lacunae, they are often not considered in FE damage models due to the high computational cost required to simulate across several length scales, i.e., from the loads applied at the organ level down to the stresses and strains around bone canals and osteocyte lacunae. Hence, the aim of the current study was twofold: First, a multilevel FE framework was developed to compute, starting from the loads applied at the whole bone scale, the local mechanical forces acting at the micrometer and submicrometer level. Second, three simple microdamage simulation procedures based on element removal were developed and applied to bone samples at the submicrometer-scale, where cortical microporosity is included. The present microdamage algorithm produced a qualitatively analogous behavior to previous experimental tests based on stepwise mechanical compression combined with in situ synchrotron radiation computed tomography. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of simulating microdamage at a physiologically relevant scale using an image-based meshing technique and multilevel FE analysis; this allows relating microdamage behavior to intracortical bone microstructure.
    Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 03/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer related-deaths. However, the effect of skeleton-associated biomechanical signals on the initiation, progression, and therapy response of breast cancer bone metastasis is largely unknown. This review seeks to highlight possible functional connections between skeletal mechanical signals and breast cancer bone metastasis and their contribution to clinical outcome. It provides an introduction to the physical and biological signals underlying bone functional adaptation and discusses the modulatory roles of mechanical loading and breast cancer metastasis in this process. Following a definition of biophysical design criteria, in vitro and in vivo approaches from the fields of bone biomechanics and tissue engineering will be reviewed that may be suitable to investigate breast cancer bone metastasis as a function of varied mechano-signaling. Finally, an outlook of future opportunities and challenges associated with this newly emerging field will be provided.
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 08/2014; · 12.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
4 Downloads
Available from
Nov 26, 2014