An amperometric biosensor was constructed for analysis of human salivary phosphate without sample pretreatment. The biosensor was constructed by immobilizing pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) on a screen-printed electrode. The presence of phosphate in the sample causes the enzymatic generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), which was monitored by a potentiostat and was in proportion to the concentration of human salivary phosphate. The sensor shows response within 2s after the addition of standard solution or sample and has a short recovery time (2 min). The time required for one measurement using this phosphate biosensor was 4 min, which was faster than the time required using a commercial phosphate testing kit (10 min). The sensor has a linear range from 7.5 to 625 microM phosphate with a detection limit of 3.6 microM. A total of 50 salivary samples were collected for the determination of phosphate. A good level of agreement (R(2)=0.9646) was found between a commercial phosphate testing kit and the phosphate sensor. This sensor maintained a high working stability (>85%) after 12h operation and required only a simple operation procedure. The amperometric biosensor using PyOD is a simple and accurate tool for rapid determinations of human salivary phosphate, and it explores the application of biosensors in oral and dental research and diagnosis.
"They also require sample pretreatment and the use of carcinogenic chemicals, such as molybdenum and antimony tartrate, that can affect human health and the environment . Therefore, an amperometric biosensor using pyruvate oxidase (PyOx) enzyme as the biorecognition molecule was developed for rapid SP analysis . The PyOx enzyme was immobilised by a Nafion matrix and covered by a poly(carbamoyl) sulfonate hydrogel as a protective layer on the SPE with two-electrode configuration. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers.
BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2014:962903. DOI:10.1155/2014/962903 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An amperometric phosphate biosensor, based on a cobalt phthalocyanine screen-printed carbon electrode (CoPC-SPCE) is described. The immobilisation of the enzyme pyruvate oxidase (PyOd) was investigated using pre-formed cellulose acetate/cellulose nitrate membranes, of different pore sizes, and the cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde (GLA). The latter method was found to be superior in terms of performance characteristics and also ease of fabrication. A linear range of 2.5–130μM and limit of detection of 2μM was obtained under optimal conditions. The biosensor also exhibited an excellent response time of just 13s±1, n=3. The biosensor was successfully applied to the measurement of phosphate in pond water samples; the mean recovery of spiked water samples was 103.2%, n=3. The original concentration of phosphate calculated in the water sample (48μM) was found to be in good agreement with that found using a standard colourimetric method. In addition to the analysis of water samples the biosensor was also applied to the analysis of human urine, with only a simple dilution of the sample, directly into the electrochemical cell, required for analysis. The precision of the biosensors, obtained during the urine analysis was 6.4%, n=6.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 12/2011; 160(1). DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2011.09.069 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The opportunities and challenges presented by the development of ever-higher brightness synchrotron radiation sources are discussed. The use of greater brightness in imaging and orbit stability is discussed. High brightness is also examined for high temporal coherence.< >
Particle Accelerator Conference, 1991. Accelerator Science and Technology., Conference Record of the 1991 IEEE; 06/1991
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