Effectiveness of the 2003–04 influenza vaccine among children 6 months to 8 years for 1 versus 2 doses

Clinical Research Unit, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, 580 Mohawk Dr, Boulder, CO 80302, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 07/2005; 116(1):153-9. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-0049
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the effectiveness of 1 and 2 doses of the 2003-2004 influenza vaccine in preventing medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) among children 6 to 23 months and 6 months to 8 years of age. Design and
Outpatient and emergency department visits and immunization records were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study among children 6 months to 8 years of age. ILI and pneumonia and influenza (P&I) outcomes were defined on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as (1 - hazard rate ratio) x 100.
A total of 29726 children were included in the analyses; 17.3% were 6 to 23 months of age. By November 19, 2003, the start of peak influenza activity, 7.5% and 9.9% of children 6 months to 8 years were fully or partially vaccinated against influenza, respectively. For fully vaccinated children 6 to 23 months of age, VE against ILI and P&I was 25% and 49%, respectively. No statistically significant reduction in ILI or P&I rates was observed for partially vaccinated children 6 to 23 months of age (-3% and 22%, respectively). For fully vaccinated children 6 months to 8 years of age, VE against ILI and P&I was 23% and 51%, respectively. For partial vaccination, VE was significant only for P&I (23%).
Despite a suboptimal match between the influenza vaccine and predominant circulating strains, influenza vaccination provided substantial protection for fully vaccinated children and possibly some protection for partially vaccinated children <9 years of age. These findings support vaccinating targeted children even when the vaccine match is suboptimal, and they highlight the need to vaccinate previously unvaccinated children with 2 doses for optimal protection.

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    • "Cost of subsidy for children in Isahaya City was the same from infants until the graduation of elementary school. In a previous study conducted among children, the vaccination coverage rate was 41.6% for children aged from 6-23 months and 26.1% for those aged 2-8 years (Ritzwoller et al. 2005). One of the reasons for the lower vaccination rate in older children was that their parents tended to visit the pediatric facilities less frequently and get less information about influenza vaccination (Ando 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccination is considered the single most important medical intervention for the prevention of influenza. The dose of trivalent influenza vaccine in children was increased almost double since 2011/12 season in Japan. We estimated the influenza vaccine effectiveness for children 1-11 years of age using rapid test kits in Isahaya City, involving 28,884 children-years, over two consecutive influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). Children were divided into two groups, vaccinated and unvaccinated, according to their vaccination record, which was obtained from an influenza registration program organized by the Isahaya Medical Association for all pediatric facilities in the city. There were 14,562 and 14,282 children aged from 1-11 years in the city in 2011 and 2012 respectively. In the 2011/12 season, the overall vaccine effectiveness in children from 1-11 years of age, against influenza A and B were 23% [95% confidence interval (CI): 14%-31%] and 20% [95% CI: 8%-31%], respectively. In the 2012/13 season, vaccine effectiveness against influenza A and B was 13% (95% CI: 4%-20%) and 9% (95% CI: -4%-21%), respectively. The vaccine effectiveness was estimated using the rapid diagnosis test kits. Age-stratified estimation showed that vaccine effectiveness was superior in younger children over both seasons and for both virus types. In conclusion, the trivalent influenza vaccine has a significant protective effect for children 1-11 years of age against influenza A and B infection in the 2011/12 season and against influenza A infection in the 2012/13 season in a community in Japan.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2014; 232(2):97-104. DOI:10.1620/tjem.232.97 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    • "The current dosage recommendation for children 6 months to 8 years of age also considers vaccination history of these children [24]. Very few studies have however evaluated the effect of previous vaccination on vaccine efficacy or effectiveness, particularly in children between 6 years and 8 years of age [25], [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history. Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59077. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059077 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "It was noted that the attack rate was higher (15.9%) in the first season compared to the second (3.3%) [26]. In a retrospective cohort study in children 6 to 23 months of age, vaccine effectiveness was 25% against influenza-like illnesses and 49% against pneumonia or influenza during the 2003-04 influenza season [27]. In another retrospective study examining healthy children aged 6-21 months, vaccine effectiveness after two doses was estimated to be 87% against pneumonia or influenza-related office visits [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccination in infants and children with existing health complications is current practice in many countries, but healthy children are also susceptible to influenza, sometimes with complications. The under-recognised burden of disease in young children is greater than in elderly populations and the number of paediatric influenza cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza. Vaccination of healthy children is not widespread in Europe despite clear demonstration of the benefits of vaccination in reducing the large health and economic burden of influenza. Universal vaccination of infants and children also provides indirect protection in other high-risk groups in the community. This paper contains the Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for the vaccination of infants and children against influenza. The aim of CEVAG is to encourage the efficient and safe use of vaccines to prevent and control infectious diseases. CEVAG recommends the introduction of universal influenza vaccination for all children from the age of 6 months. Special attention is needed for children up to 60 months of age as they are at greatest risk. Individual countries should decide on how best to implement this recommendation based on their circumstances.
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