Effectiveness of the 2003-2004 influenza vaccine among children 6 months to 8 years of age, with 1 vs 2 doses
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effectiveness of 1 and 2 doses of the 2003-2004 influenza vaccine in preventing medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) among children 6 to 23 months and 6 months to 8 years of age. Design and
Outpatient and emergency department visits and immunization records were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study among children 6 months to 8 years of age. ILI and pneumonia and influenza (P&I) outcomes were defined on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated as (1 - hazard rate ratio) x 100.
A total of 29726 children were included in the analyses; 17.3% were 6 to 23 months of age. By November 19, 2003, the start of peak influenza activity, 7.5% and 9.9% of children 6 months to 8 years were fully or partially vaccinated against influenza, respectively. For fully vaccinated children 6 to 23 months of age, VE against ILI and P&I was 25% and 49%, respectively. No statistically significant reduction in ILI or P&I rates was observed for partially vaccinated children 6 to 23 months of age (-3% and 22%, respectively). For fully vaccinated children 6 months to 8 years of age, VE against ILI and P&I was 23% and 51%, respectively. For partial vaccination, VE was significant only for P&I (23%).
Despite a suboptimal match between the influenza vaccine and predominant circulating strains, influenza vaccination provided substantial protection for fully vaccinated children and possibly some protection for partially vaccinated children <9 years of age. These findings support vaccinating targeted children even when the vaccine match is suboptimal, and they highlight the need to vaccinate previously unvaccinated children with 2 doses for optimal protection.
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ABSTRACT: There are many outbreak detection that available with various techniques being introduced ranging from statistic to data mining including machine learning. With the direction of spatial-temporal data the research under public health surveillance especially outbreak detection or anomalies detection are promising research. In this paper we applied data mining techniques in detecting outbreak in public health surveillance. The phase involves learning, detecting and repository. An extracted sequential pattern method, outlier set was identified using outlier detection algorithm methods.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether provision of vaccine-health-literacy-promoting information in text message vaccine reminders improves receipt and timeliness of the second dose of influenza vaccine within a season for children in need of 2 doses. During the 2012-2013 season, families of eligible 6-month through 8-year-old children were recruited at the time of their first influenza vaccination from 3 community clinics in New York City. Children (n = 660) were randomly assigned to "educational" text message, "conventional" text message, and "written reminder-only" arms. At enrollment, all arms received a written reminder with next dose due date. Conventional messages included second dose due date and clinic walk-in hours. Educational messages added information regarding the need for a timely second dose. Receipt of second dose by April 30 was assessed by using χ(2) tests. Timeliness was assessed by receipt of second dose by 2 weeks after due date (day 42) using χ(2) and over time using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Most families were Latino and publicly insured with no significant between-arm differences between groups. Children in the educational arm were more likely to receive a second dose by April 30 (72.7%) versus conventional (66.7%) versus written reminder-only arm (57.1%; P = .003). They also had more timely receipt by day 42 (P < .001) and over time (P < .001). In this low-income, urban, minority population, embedding health literacy information improved the effectiveness of text message reminders in promoting timely delivery of a second dose of influenza vaccine, compared with conventional text messages and written reminder only. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.Pediatrics 01/2015; 135(1):e83-91. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2475 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since 2009, Thailand has recommended influenza vaccine for children aged 6 months through 2 years, but no estimates of influenza vaccine coverage or effectiveness are available for this target group. During August 2011-May 2013, high-risk and healthy children aged ≤36 months were enrolled in a 2-year prospective cohort study. Parents were contacted weekly about acute respiratory illness (ARI) in their child. Ill children had combined nasal and throat swabs tested for influenza viruses by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Influenza vaccination status was verified with vaccination cards. The Cox proportional hazards approach was used to estimate hazard ratios. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 100% x (1-hazard ratio). During 2011-2013, 968 children were enrolled (median age, 10·3 months); 948 (97·9%) had a vaccination record and were included. Of these, 394 (41·6%) had ≥1 medical conditions. Vaccination coverage for the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons was 29·3% (93/317) and 30·0% (197/656), respectively. In 2011-2012, there were 213 ARI episodes, of which 10 (4·6%) were influenza positive (2·3 per 1000 vaccinated and 3·8 per 1000 unvaccinated child-weeks). The VE was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], -72, 88). In 2012-2013, there were 846 ARIs, of which 52 (6·2%) were influenza positive (1·8 per 1000 vaccinated and 4·5 per 1000 unvaccinated child-weeks). The VE was 64% (CI, 13%, 85%). Influenza vaccination coverage among young children in Thailand was low, although vaccination was moderately effective. Continued efforts are needed to increase influenza vaccination coverage and evaluate VE among young children in Thailand. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 01/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1111/irv.12302 · 1.90 Impact Factor