Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.
ABSTRACT Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning.
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ABSTRACT: Organotellurium compounds have been synthesized since 1840, but their pharmacological and toxicological properties are still incipient. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the effect of acute administration with the organochalcogen 3-butyl-1-phenyl-2-(phenyltelluro)oct-en-1-one on the activity of brain creatine kinase (CK), a key enzyme in energy metabolism, and on behaviors in the open field test of 30-day-old rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with a single dose of the organotellurium (125, 250, or 500 μg/kg body weight) and after 55 min of the drug administration the open field test was carried out. Behavior analyses were performed during 5 min and the number of the squares crossed, number of rearing, number of groomings and number of fecal boli were recorded by an observer. Then, the animals were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum were dissected, and CK activity and sulfhydryl content were measured in the brain. The organotellurium increased the ambulation and rearing behaviors in the open field test at doses of 250 and 500 μg/kg. Moreover, the compound inhibited CK activity and provoked a reduced of thiol content measured by the sulfhydryl assay in all the tissues studied. Therefore, changes in energy homeostasis and motor behavior in rats treated with this organotellurium support the hypotheses that the brain is a potential target to pharmacological and toxicological effects of this compound.International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 07/2011; 29(8):903-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2011.07.001 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Data regarding tellurium (Te) toxicity are scarce but metabolic studies in bacteria highlight a major role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Concentration- and time-dependent cell death has been reported in cancer cells exposed to inorganic tellurite. However, the potential in vitro effect that tellurite could generates in non-transformed human cells is still unknown. Therefore, we have studied the toxicity of inorganic tellurite (K2TeO3) in both freshly isolated peripheral blood leukocytes and in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells (K562 cells). Interestingly, we observed higher increases of ROS in leukocytes after treatment with tellurite, as compared to K562 cells. Given the high reactivity of tellurite with glutathione (GSH), a mechanism that leads to ROS formation (and mainly superoxide anion), we postulate that such a difference between cancer and normal cells is likely due to the higher GSH contents found in leukocytes versus leukemia cells. Taken together, our data point out the major differences that can be observed between cancer and corresponding normal cells in studies looking for in vitro toxicity.Molecular and Cellular Toxicology 12/2013; 8(4). DOI:10.1007/s13273-012-0040-6 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present work critically reviews the scientific and patent literature on low-melting bismuth-based oxide glass frits in materials for electronics, sensors and related applications such as sealing glasses, solar cells, architectural and automotive glass, the main motivation being to replace lead-based materials by environmentally more benign ones. Due to similar glass-forming properties of Bi and Pb, Bi-based glasses are the closest "drop-in" alternative for lead-bearing formulations, and are therefore actually replacing them in many applications, helped also by previous experience with Bi-containing materials in thick-film technology and component metallisations. The outstanding issues are discussed, e.g. matching the lowest processing temperatures achieved by the classical lead-based glasses without sacrificing durability and stability, as well as stability vs. chemical reduction. Finally, consideration is also given to special "heavy" glasses (often containing Bi and Pb together) that are useful in fields such as optics, superconductors and nuclear technology, as well as to specific Bi2O3-containing crystalline compounds.International Materials Reviews 01/2013; 58(1). DOI:10.1179/1743280412Y.0000000010 · 6.55 Impact Factor