p300 regulates androgen receptor-independent expression of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer cells treated chronically with interleukin-6.
ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-skin cancer in men. Although the mechanisms involved in the progression of prostate cancer are not entirely understood, androgen receptor has been shown to play an important role. Androgen receptor is expressed in both early and late-stage prostate cancer. Also, androgen-regulated pathways are thought to be active as evidenced by elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, several androgen receptor coactivators and cytokines are involved in prostate cancer progression. In this regard, we have shown previously that the coactivator p300 plays a major role in the androgen-independent activation of PSA by interleukin 6 (IL-6), a cytokine involved in late-stage prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of p300 and its homologue CREB-binding protein in prostate cancer cells treated chronically with IL-6. We found that p300 but not CREB-binding protein induced activation of PSA in these cells and that the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300 was critical. This effect was independent of the presence of androgens or antiandrogens. Moreover, we found markedly reduced levels of androgen receptor in these cells and p300 transfection did not affect those levels, suggesting that the p300 effect on PSA could be bypassing the androgen receptor. Transfection with exogenous androgen receptor showed minimal response of PSA to androgens but higher response to p300. We found similar effects of p300 on the androgen response element III, which mediates the androgen receptor-dependent activation of PSA. Finally, we showed that p300 alone regulates expression of the endogenous PSA gene in the IL-6-treated cells. These findings reveal a new insight in the progression of prostate cancer, suggesting that coactivators, such as p300, play more important roles in late-stage prostate cancer, and could regulate androgen-dependent genes in the absence or with very low levels of androgen receptor.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lucy J Schmidt, Jun 10, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are increased in therapy-resistant prostate cancer. IL-6 has been considered a positive growth factor in late-stage prostate cancer cells and a potential target for therapeutic interference. Effects of inhibition of IL-6 on cell survival were studied in LNCaP-IL6+ cells, a model system for advanced prostate cancer, which produce IL-6. We show that the autocrine IL-6 loop is responsible for resistance to apoptosis and increased cellular levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) protein, an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Treatment of cells with a chimeric anti-IL-6 antibody (CNTO 328) led to the induction of apoptosis and downregulation of Mcl-1 protein levels. Specific knockdown of Mcl-1 gene expression by small interfering RNA also yielded an increase in apoptosis of LNCaP-IL-6+ cells. Vice versa, inactivation of IL-6 autocrine loop had no influence on apoptosis levels in the absence of Mcl-1, thus suggesting this molecule as a mediator of the survival action of IL-6. Mcl-1 protein regulation by the endogenous cytokine directly involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our data support the concept of anti-IL-6 targeted therapy in therapy-resistant prostate cancer.Oncogene 06/2007; 26(20):2822-32. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210097 · 8.56 Impact Factor
- Cancer Research 04/2011; 71(8 Supplement):1622-1622. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2011-1622 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) is a key driver of prostate cancer (PC), even in the state of castration-resistant PC (CRPC) and frequently even after treatment with second-line hormonal therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. The persistence of AR activity via both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms (including constitutively active AR splice variants) highlights the unmet need for alternative approaches to block AR signaling in CRPC. We investigated the transcription factor GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2) as a regulator of AR signaling and an actionable therapeutic target in PC. We demonstrate that GATA2 directly promotes expression of both full-length and splice-variant AR, resulting in a strong positive correlation between GATA2 and AR expression in both PC cell lines and patient specimens. Conversely, GATA2 expression is repressed by androgen and AR, suggesting a negative feedback regulatory loop that, upon androgen deprivation, derepresses GATA2 to contribute to AR overexpression in CRPC. Simultaneously, GATA2 is necessary for optimal transcriptional activity of both full-length and splice-variant AR. GATA2 colocalizes with AR and Forkhead box protein A1 on chromatin to enhance recruitment of steroid receptor coactivators and formation of the transcriptional holocomplex. In agreement with these important functions, high GATA2 expression and transcriptional activity predicted worse clinical outcome in PC patients. A GATA2 small molecule inhibitor suppressed the expression and transcriptional function of both full-length and splice-variant AR and exerted potent anticancer activity against PC cell lines. We propose pharmacological inhibition of GATA2 as a first-in-field approach to target AR expression and function and improve outcomes in CRPC.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2014; 111(51):18261-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1421415111 · 9.81 Impact Factor