Article

P300 regulates androgen receptor-independent expression of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer cells treated chronically with interleukin-6

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 08/2005; 65(13):5965-73. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-2837
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-skin cancer in men. Although the mechanisms involved in the progression of prostate cancer are not entirely understood, androgen receptor has been shown to play an important role. Androgen receptor is expressed in both early and late-stage prostate cancer. Also, androgen-regulated pathways are thought to be active as evidenced by elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, several androgen receptor coactivators and cytokines are involved in prostate cancer progression. In this regard, we have shown previously that the coactivator p300 plays a major role in the androgen-independent activation of PSA by interleukin 6 (IL-6), a cytokine involved in late-stage prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of p300 and its homologue CREB-binding protein in prostate cancer cells treated chronically with IL-6. We found that p300 but not CREB-binding protein induced activation of PSA in these cells and that the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300 was critical. This effect was independent of the presence of androgens or antiandrogens. Moreover, we found markedly reduced levels of androgen receptor in these cells and p300 transfection did not affect those levels, suggesting that the p300 effect on PSA could be bypassing the androgen receptor. Transfection with exogenous androgen receptor showed minimal response of PSA to androgens but higher response to p300. We found similar effects of p300 on the androgen response element III, which mediates the androgen receptor-dependent activation of PSA. Finally, we showed that p300 alone regulates expression of the endogenous PSA gene in the IL-6-treated cells. These findings reveal a new insight in the progression of prostate cancer, suggesting that coactivators, such as p300, play more important roles in late-stage prostate cancer, and could regulate androgen-dependent genes in the absence or with very low levels of androgen receptor.

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    • "LNCaP-IL-6+ cells are a good model for studies of function of AR co-activators in prostate cancer. The AR coactivator p300 was found to increase expression of endogenous genes which are AR-regulated even in conditions where the receptor is strongly inhibited (Debes et al., 2005). Those findings may be of special interest because there is a subgroup of prostate cancer cells in which the AR is silenced as a result of epigenetic changes (Jarrard et al., 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Several cytokines are involved in regulation of cellular events in prostate cancer. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was frequently investigated in prostate cancer models because of its increased expression in cancer tissue at early stages of the disease. In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, it is well-known that IL-6 levels increase in serum. High levels of IL-6 were measured in the supernatants of cells which do not respond to androgenic stimulation. IL-6 expression in prostate cancer increases due to enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-beta, and members of the activating protein-1 complex, and loss of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor (AR) may contribute to progression of a subgroup of prostate cancers. Results obtained with two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b, indicate that IL-6 activation of AR may cause either stimulatory or inhibitory responses on proliferation. Interestingly, prolonged treatment with IL-6 led to establishment of an IL-6 autocrine loop, suppressed signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 activation, and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. In several cell lines IL-6 acts as a survival molecule through activation of the signalling pathway of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase. Expression of suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) has been studied in prostate cancer. SOCS-3 prevents phosphorylation of STAT3 and is an important anti-apoptotic factor in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. Experimental therapy against IL-6 in prostate cancer is based on the use of the monoclonal antibody siltuximab which may be used for personalised therapy coming in the future.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 06/2011; 360(1-2):52-8. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.033 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    • "It was also observed that long-term treatment of cells with IL-6 leads to a strongly reduced expression of androgen receptor (AR) [12]. This is in contrast to the short-term treatment in which IL-6 increased expression and activity of AR [13] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-6, -4, and -8 levels have been elevated in most patients suffering from prostate, breast, or colon cancer. There is a large body of evidence suggesting that chronic inflammation is one of the etiologic factors in these tumors. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine which is known to influence proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in cancer. Its transcription factor STAT3 is known as an oncogene that is constitutively phosphorylated in these malignancies. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation may result in growth arrest. IL-6 activation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer may yield either tumor cell proliferation or differentiation. Prolonged treatment with IL-6 results in generation of sublines which express a more malignant phenotype. Therapy options against IL-6 have been established and the antibody siltuximab has been applied in preclinical and clinical studies. Recently, investigations of the role of suppressors of cytokine signaling have been carried out. IL-4 and -8 are implicated in regulation of apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis in cancers associated with chronic inflammation. All cytokines mentioned above regulate cellular events in stem cells. These cells could not be targeted by most conventional cancer therapies.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2011; 1813(2):308-14. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.12.010 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    • "cDNA was prepared from 3 μg total RNA using a SuperScriptIII first-strand synthesis system (Invitrogen), following the manufacturer's instructions. Real-time RT-PCR was performed using SYBR Green PCR mastermix (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) on an ABI Prism 7700 SDS instrument as described (Debes et al. 2005). The primers used are listed in Table 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is approximately three times more common in men than women. While the etiology for this gender difference in incidence remains unknown, a role for androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been suggested. The mechanisms by which AR activity is regulated in UC cells, however, are largely elusive. Here, we explore the significance of coregulators that are critical for the formation of a functional AR transcriptional complex, in UC cells. Using two AR-positive UC cell lines, TCC-SUP and UMUC3, we demonstrate the expression of the coactivators NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, CREBBP, and EP300 in UC cells. small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the AR or any of these coactivators markedly impacted cell viability and abrogated androgen-dependent cell proliferation. Noteworthy, contrary to AR-positive prostate cancer cells, expression of these AR-associated coactivators was not androgen regulated in UC cells. To assess the clinical relevance of coactivator expression, we performed immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections from 55 patients with UC of the bladder. We found that while 24 out of 55 (44%) of tumors expressed the AR, each of the coactivators was expressed by 85-100% of the bladder cancers. Moreover, we noted a significant downregulation of NCOA1 expression in tumors versus adjacent, non-tumor bladder urothelium, with a mean of 68% (range 0-100) of tumor cells demonstrating NCOA1 staining versus a mean of 81% (range 0-90) of non-tumor cells (P=0.03). Taken together, our data suggest an important role for AR-associated coactivators in UC and point toward differences in the regulation of AR activity between bladder and prostate cancer cells.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 11/2008; 16(1):123-37. DOI:10.1677/ERC-08-0124 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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