A human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 regulatory element enhances the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA vaccines in mice and nonhuman primates.
ABSTRACT Plasmid DNA vaccines elicit potent and protective immune responses in numerous small-animal models of infectious diseases. However, their immunogenicity in primates appears less potent. Here we investigate a novel approach that optimizes regulatory elements in the plasmid backbone to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. Among various regions analyzed, we found that the addition of a regulatory sequence from the R region of the long terminal repeat from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/promoter increased transgene expression 5- to 10-fold and improved cellular immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigens. In cynomolgus monkeys, DNA vaccines containing the CMV enhancer/promoter with the HTLV-1 R region (CMV/R) induced markedly higher cellular immune responses to HIV-1 Env from clades A, B, and C and to HIV-1 Gag-Pol-Nef compared with the parental DNA vaccines. These data demonstrate that optimization of specific regulatory elements can substantially improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding multiple antigens in small animals and in nonhuman primates. This strategy could therefore be explored as a potential method to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity in humans.
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ABSTRACT: Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, even the best bNAbs neutralize 10-50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) > 5 μg ml(-1)), suggesting that high concentrations of these antibodies would be necessary to achieve general protection. Here we show that eCD4-Ig, a fusion of CD4-Ig with a small CCR5-mimetic sulfopeptide, binds avidly and cooperatively to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is more potent than the best bNAbs (geometric mean half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 0.05 μg ml(-1)). Because eCD4-Ig binds only conserved regions of Env, it is also much broader than any bNAb. For example, eCD4-Ig efficiently neutralized 100% of a diverse panel of neutralization-resistant HIV-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates, including a comprehensive set of isolates resistant to the CD4-binding site bNAbs VRC01, NIH45-46 and 3BNC117. Rhesus macaques inoculated with an AAV vector stably expressed 17-77 μg ml(-1) of fully functional rhesus eCD4-Ig for more than 40 weeks, and these macaques were protected from several infectious challenges with SHIV-AD8. Rhesus eCD4-Ig was also markedly less immunogenic than rhesus forms of four well-characterized bNAbs. Our data suggest that AAV-delivered eCD4-Ig can function like an effective HIV-1 vaccine.Nature 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/nature14264 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of safe and effective vaccines for the prevention of elusive infectious diseases remains a public health priority. Immunization, characterized by adaptive immune responses to specific antigens, can be raised by an array of delivery vectors. However, current commercial vaccination strategies are predicated on the retooling of archaic technology. This review will discuss current and emerging strategies designed to elicit immune responses in the context of genetic vaccination. Selected strategies at the biomaterial-biological interface will be emphasized to illustrate the potential of coupling both fields towards a common goal.09/2014; 2(46). DOI:10.1039/C4TB01058B