Mutational spectrum of steroid 21-hydroxylase and the genotype-phenotype association in Middle European patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
ABSTRACT To analyze the mutational spectrum of steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) and the genotype- phenotype correlation in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) registered in the Middle European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology CAH database, and to design a reliable and rational approach for CYP21 mutation detection in Middle European populations.
Molecular analysis of the CYP21 gene was performed in 432 CAH patients and 298 family members. Low-resolution genotyping was performed to detect the eight most common point mutations. High-resolution genotyping, including Southern blotting and sequencing was performed to detect CYP21 gene deletions, conversions, point mutations or other sequence changes.
CYP21 gene deletion and In2 and Ile172Asn mutation accounted for 72.7% of the affected alleles in the whole study group. A good genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, with the exception of Ile172Asn and Pro30Leu mutations. In 37% of patients low resolution genotyping could not identify the causative mutation or distinguish homozygosity from hemizygosity. Using high-resolution genotyping, the causative mutations could be identified in 341 out of 348 analyzed patients. A novel mutation Gln315Stop was found in one simple virilising CAH (SV-CAH) patient from Austria. In the remaining seven patients polymorphisms were identified as the leading sequence alteration. The presence of elevated basal and ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, premature pubarche, advanced bone age and clitoral hypertrophy directly implicated Asn493Ser polymorphism in the manifestation of nonclassical- (NC) and even SV-CAH.
By genotyping for the most common point mutations, CYP21 gene deletion/conversion and the 8 bp deletion in exon 3, it should be possible to identify the mutation in 94-99% of the diseased alleles in any investigated Middle European population. In patients with a mild form of the disease and no detectable mutation CYP21 gene polymorphisms should be considered as a plausible disease-causing mutation.
Article: Structure-based analysis of five novel disease-causing mutations in 21-hydroxylase-deficient patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism, and accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. The affected enzyme, P450C21, is encoded by the CYP21A2 gene, located together with a 98% nucleotide sequence identity CYP21A1P pseudogene, on chromosome 6p21.3. Even though most patients carry CYP21A1P-derived mutations, an increasing number of novel and rare mutations in disease causing alleles were found in the last years. In the present work, we describe five CYP21A2 novel mutations, p.R132C, p.149C, p.M283V, p.E431K and a frameshift g.2511_2512delGG, in four non-classical and one salt wasting patients from Argentina. All novel point mutations are located in CYP21 protein residues that are conserved throughout mammalian species, and none of them were found in control individuals. The putative pathogenic mechanisms of the novel variants were analyzed in silico. A three-dimensional CYP21 structure was generated by homology modeling and the protein design algorithm FoldX was used to calculate changes in stability of CYP21A2 protein. Our analysis revealed changes in protein stability or in the surface charge of the mutant enzymes, which could be related to the clinical manifestation found in patients.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e15899. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Endocrine profile and phenotype-genotype correlation in unrelated patients with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify the molecular defect in a group of 37 unrelated Greek Cypriot patients affected by NC-CAH and evaluate the relationship between the genotype, phenotype and adrenal androgen levels. Clinical evaluation, biochemical analysis of 17-OHP, Testosterone, Androstenedione, DHEA-S, direct DNA sequencing and MLPA analyses. Eleven known mutations were identified with the p.V281L being the most predominant and observed in 68.9% of the alleles. There was no difference between the two genotypes (mild/mild and mild/severe) with clinical presentation, whereas a proportional relationship between the type of mutation and adrenal androgen levels was found. The frequency of the underlying genetic defect in our patients with NC-CAH is similar to that observed in most Mediterranean populations. Although the genotype cannot solely explain the clinical expression of NC-CAH, discrimination between mild and severe alleles is crucial in antenatal diagnosis and genetic counselling.Clinical biochemistry 05/2011; 44(12):959-63. · 2.02 Impact Factor