Mutational spectrum of steroid 21-hydroxylase and the genotype-phenotype association in Middle European patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
ABSTRACT To analyze the mutational spectrum of steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) and the genotype- phenotype correlation in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) registered in the Middle European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology CAH database, and to design a reliable and rational approach for CYP21 mutation detection in Middle European populations.
Molecular analysis of the CYP21 gene was performed in 432 CAH patients and 298 family members. Low-resolution genotyping was performed to detect the eight most common point mutations. High-resolution genotyping, including Southern blotting and sequencing was performed to detect CYP21 gene deletions, conversions, point mutations or other sequence changes.
CYP21 gene deletion and In2 and Ile172Asn mutation accounted for 72.7% of the affected alleles in the whole study group. A good genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, with the exception of Ile172Asn and Pro30Leu mutations. In 37% of patients low resolution genotyping could not identify the causative mutation or distinguish homozygosity from hemizygosity. Using high-resolution genotyping, the causative mutations could be identified in 341 out of 348 analyzed patients. A novel mutation Gln315Stop was found in one simple virilising CAH (SV-CAH) patient from Austria. In the remaining seven patients polymorphisms were identified as the leading sequence alteration. The presence of elevated basal and ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, premature pubarche, advanced bone age and clitoral hypertrophy directly implicated Asn493Ser polymorphism in the manifestation of nonclassical- (NC) and even SV-CAH.
By genotyping for the most common point mutations, CYP21 gene deletion/conversion and the 8 bp deletion in exon 3, it should be possible to identify the mutation in 94-99% of the diseased alleles in any investigated Middle European population. In patients with a mild form of the disease and no detectable mutation CYP21 gene polymorphisms should be considered as a plausible disease-causing mutation.
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ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism and accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. In the present work, we analyzed the functional consequence of four novel previously reported point CYP21A2 mutations -p.R132C, p.R149C, p.M283V, p.E431K- found in Argentinean 21-hydroxylase deficient patients. In addition, we report an acceptor splice site novel point mutation, c.652-2A>G, found in a classical patient in compound heterozygosity with the rare p.R483Q mutation. We performed bioinformatic and functional assays to evaluate the biological implication of the novel mutation. Our analyses revealed that the residual enzymatic activity of the isolated mutants coding for CYP21A2 aminoacidic substitutions was reduced to a lesser than 50% of the wild type with both progesterone and 17-OH progesterone as substrates. Accordingly, all the variants would predict mild non-classical alleles. In one non-classical patient, the p.E431K mutation was found in cis with the p.D322G one. The highest decrease in enzyme activity was obtained when both mutations were assayed in the same construction, with a residual activity most likely related to the simple virilizing form of the disease. For the c.652-2A>G mutation, bioinformatic tools predicted the putative use of two different cryptic splicing sites. Nevertheless, functional analyses revealed the use of only one cryptic splice acceptor site located within exon 6, leading to the appearance of an mRNA with a 16 nt deletion. A severe allele is strongly suggested due to the presence of a premature stop codon in the protein only 12 nt downstream.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92181. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is not currently included in the UK newborn screening programme. We investigated the hypothesis that, owing to non-specificity of symptoms, a proportion of males affected by salt-wasting (SW) CAH have died in infancy without being diagnosed. Stored newborn screening blood spot samples were analysed for 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) in the following groups: Infants born in the North West of England, 1994 to 2006, who had died by 6 months age; (n=1198), a neonatal reference group (full-term n=100; preterm n=100) and a CAH positive control group. A newborn blood spot sample collected before diagnosis was available in 29/61 CAH patients recruited. SW CAH was present in 18/29 patients (16 males and 2 females). Samples from the deceased group with elevated 17-OHP were analysed for 8 common mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). North West of England. Grouped by gestational age, mean (maximum) blood spot 17-OHP in nmol/L was as follows. Deceased full-term n=279, 6 (107); deceased premature n=365, 28 (251); deceased unknown gestational age n=553, 13 (>394). In the SW positive control group, the lowest level of 17-OHP was 179 nmol/L and 14 had levels greater than the highest standard (>268 to >420 nmol/L). All samples from the deceased group with 17-OHP results >179 nmol/L (n=6) and a further 13 samples underwent mutation analysis. No mutations were identified. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that, in our unscreened population, males affected by SW CAH are dying prior to diagnosis.Archives of Disease in Childhood 11/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: About 95% of the cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are caused by mutations in CYP21A2 encoding 21-hydroxylase (21OH). Recently we reported four novel CYP21A2 variants in the Norwegian population of patients with CAH, of which p.L388R and p.E140K were associated with salt-wasting (SW), p.P45L with simple virilising (SV) and p.V211M + p.V281L with SV to non-classical (NC) phenotypes. To characterise the novel variants functionally utilising a newly designed in vitro assay of 21OH enzyme activity and structural simulations, and compare the results with clinical phenotypes. CYP21A2 mutations and variants were expressed in vitro. Enzyme activity was assayed by assessing conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. PyMOL 1.3 was used for structural simulations, and PolyPhen2 and PROVEAN for predicting severity of the mutants. The CYP21A2 mutants, p.L388R and p.E140K, exhibited 1.1 % and 11.3%, of wild type (wt) 21OH enzyme activity, respectively, in vitro. We could not detect any functional deficiency of the p.P45L variant in vitro; although prediction tools suggest p.P45L to be pathogenic. p.V211M displayed enzyme activity equivalent to the wt in vitro, which was supported by in silico analyses. p.A159T was proposed to be a normal variant by both evaluation methods. We found good correlations between phenotype and the in vitro enzyme activities of the SW mutants, but not for the SV p.P45L variant. p.V211M might have a synergistic effect together with p.V281L explaining a phenotype between SV and NC CAH.Endocrine connections. 03/2014;