A 3-year panel study of mental disorders among adolescents in Taiwan
ABSTRACT This study investigated the prevalence and changing trends of mental disorders and the effects of gender and urbanization among adolescents in Taiwan.
A random sample of seventh-grade students (N=1,070) was recruited from one urban and one rural junior high school in which 1,051 (98.2%) and 1,035 (96.7%) were reassessed in the second and third years, respectively. A two-stage case identification was conducted by mental health professionals with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Epidemiologic Version, supplemented by information from the Child Behavior Checklist.
The weighted 3-month prevalence rates across the 3 consecutive years for overall psychiatric disorders were 20.3%, 22.7%, and 14.8%, respectively. The most prevalent psychiatric condition was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the first 2 years and substance use disorders in the third. During the 3 years, the rates for ADHD, specific phobia, and social phobia decreased, and the rates for major depression and substance use disorders, conversely, increased. Although conduct disorder, ADHD, and substance use disorders were more prevalent among boys, the rates for major depression, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder were higher among girls. Rural adolescents had higher rates of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance use disorders than their urban counterparts.
Our findings are similar to those of previous studies among adolescents in prevalence rates, changing trends of most mental disorders, and gender effects. The differential changing trends in various diagnostic groups may imply the importance of specific measures for prevention during adolescence.
SourceAvailable from: Wen-Yih Tseng[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its association with ADHD symptoms and a wide range of attention performance in youth with ADHD and healthy controls. We assessed youths with ADHD and age-, sex-, handedness-, coil- and intelligence-matched controls using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) for attention performance and MRI. The 10 target tracts, including the bilateral frontostriatal tracts (caudate to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle were reconstructed using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. We computed generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values to indicate tract-specific microstructural property. We included 50 youths with ADHD and 50 healthy controls in our study. Youths with ADHD had lower GFA in the left frontostriatal tracts, bilateral SLF and right cingulum bundle and performed worse in the CCPT than controls. Furthermore, alteration of the right SLF GFA was most significantly associated with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls. Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property. Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates the involvement of different fibre tracts in attention performance in these individuals.Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 04/2015; 40(2):140106. · 7.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the implications of social anxiety symptoms in a community sample of elementary school children in mainland China.Method Participants were N = 576 children (309 boys, 267 girls; mean age = 11.52 years, standard deviation = 1.21) attending public elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Multisource assessments included child self-reports, teacher ratings, and school records.ResultsConfirmatory factor analyses replicated the previously established 3-factor solution for the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised. Social anxiety symptoms were associated with indices of internalizing problems, peer difficulties, and poorer school adjustment.Conclusion Results are discussed in terms of the implications of social avoidance as a particularly maladaptive component of social anxiety in the collectivistic society of China.Journal of Clinical Psychology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/jclp.22195 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran. Methods In the present cross-sectional and descriptive – analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors. Result Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%), and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%). Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age’s groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05). Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4), hyperactivity problems (21.5%) and overall criterion problems (17.3%); Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1%) and problems with peers (8.1%); and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%). Conclusion In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12 to 14 and 15 to 17 year old adolescents or between middle and high school graduates. In the current study, the prevalence of psychological problems in adolescents in the urban population in Fars province was higher than expected.09/2013; 8(4):152-159.