A 3-year panel study of mental disorders among adolescents in Taiwan
ABSTRACT This study investigated the prevalence and changing trends of mental disorders and the effects of gender and urbanization among adolescents in Taiwan.
A random sample of seventh-grade students (N=1,070) was recruited from one urban and one rural junior high school in which 1,051 (98.2%) and 1,035 (96.7%) were reassessed in the second and third years, respectively. A two-stage case identification was conducted by mental health professionals with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Epidemiologic Version, supplemented by information from the Child Behavior Checklist.
The weighted 3-month prevalence rates across the 3 consecutive years for overall psychiatric disorders were 20.3%, 22.7%, and 14.8%, respectively. The most prevalent psychiatric condition was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the first 2 years and substance use disorders in the third. During the 3 years, the rates for ADHD, specific phobia, and social phobia decreased, and the rates for major depression and substance use disorders, conversely, increased. Although conduct disorder, ADHD, and substance use disorders were more prevalent among boys, the rates for major depression, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder were higher among girls. Rural adolescents had higher rates of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance use disorders than their urban counterparts.
Our findings are similar to those of previous studies among adolescents in prevalence rates, changing trends of most mental disorders, and gender effects. The differential changing trends in various diagnostic groups may imply the importance of specific measures for prevention during adolescence.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence rate of depressive symptoms in left-behind participants aged 7-17 years and to explore the associated socio-demographic and communication factors. Participants were 4857 left-behind children and adolescents in Chongqing. They were screened for depressive symptoms using a 27-item Children׳s Depression Inventory (CDI) and social-demographic variables were evaluated with a structured scale. Uncorrected Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression were applied to analyzing the data. The total prevalence rate of depressive symptoms was 24.8%. Significant difference was found in the prevalence rate of depressive symptoms among groups of different income, grade, age, left-behind subtypes, and different frequency, ways and topics of parent-child communication. We found that the risk factors for depression were absence of parents, low frequency of parent-child communication, and communication by letter or about sensitive topics. The grade group 2-3 and age group 16-17 were at a higher risk of depression than all other grade and age subgroups. The protective factors for depression were high-income, high frequency of parent-child communication, communication by telephone or about such topic as learning experience, school life, and feelings. Self-report bias and cross-sectional nature of the sampling are major limitations of this study. The prevalence rate of depressive symptoms among left-behind children and adolescents in Chongqing is much higher than previously reported prevalence in other regions of China. The risk and protective factors for depression among left-behind children and adolescents are worthy of public attention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2015; 177:36-41. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.002 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe a research model regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) in Central Taiwan based on the strategy of routine data collection from clinical practice. Therefore, a prospective study with naturalistic observation was used. Modeling study was developed in clinical evaluation and treating for the ADHD children at Department of Psychiatry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital in Central Taiwan. For all new patients, their first visit information were collected, including socio-demography, ADHD symptom scale, family support, academic performance, enuresis, severity of disability, mother depression, blood pressure(BP), heart rate(HR), weight, height, help-seeking behavior. After the clinical interview, patients were arranged to be assessed by the Neuropsychological test such as Continuous Performance Test (CPT). During the follow-up period, many variables (messages for the side effects, BP, HR, Weight, Height, CPT, ADHD symptom scale) were recorded. Finally, the ADHD clinical–based research model was contributed using all variables into many studies such as the ADHD comorbidity study, family study, sleep study, assessment tool development and treatment outcome study. The results had shown a several ADHD related papers have been published from this model. New treatment strategies emerged from the findings of studies. This is a feasible model for combining clinical practice with research to produce international publications. Clinical benefits of this model include creating culture-specific knowledge from the clinicians' own clinical practice, focusing essential processes on cost-effective patient retreatment, and maintaining ongoing relationships with patients. In conclusions, our experience shows the clinical practice based longitudinal study is feasible and the results can nurture the quality of clinical practice vice versa.
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ABSTRACT: The posterior right temporo-parietal junction (pRTPJ) is a key brain region representing other's mental status. Despite reports of atypical activation at pRTPJ during mentalizing in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the pRTPJ remains under-investigated. We examined whether boys with ASD show altered resting-state iFC of the pRTPJ, and whether atypical iFC of the pRTPJ is associated with social defi-cits in ASD in a sample of 40 boys with high-functioning ASD (aged 9–17 years, mean age, 12.38 6 2.17; mean IQ, 105.60 6 16.06) and 42 typically developing (TD) boys (aged 9–17 years, mean age, 11.64 6 2.71; mean IQ, 111.29 6 13.45). Both groups received resting-state fMRI assessment after imaging data quality control for in-scanner head motion and spatial coverage. Seed-based approach was used to investigate iFC of the pRTPJ. TD and ASD boys demonstrated a resting-state pRTPJ iFC pattern comparable to the known spatial involvement of the default-mode network. Boys with ASD showed pRTPJ hyperconnectivity relative to TD boys in the right ventral occipito-temporal cortex. This atypically increased iFC in the ASD group was positively correlated with social deficits assessed by the Chinese version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Social Responsive Scale. Our findings provide empirical support for functional " dysconnectivity, " that is, atypical functional integration among brain regions, as an integral component of the atypical neurobiology of ASD.Autism Research 01/2015; 00:0-0. DOI:10.1002/aur.1457 · 4.53 Impact Factor