Article

National trends in hospitalization of youth with intentional self-inflicted injuries.

New York State Psychiatric Institute/Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA.
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.56). 08/2005; 162(7):1328-35. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.7.1328
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors examined national trends from 1990 to 2000 in the utilization of community hospital inpatient services by young people (5-20 years of age) with intentional self-inflicted injuries.
Discharge abstracts from a nationally representative sample of community hospitals were analyzed, with a focus on youth discharges (N=10,831) with a diagnosis of intentional self-inflicted injury (ICD-9-CM: E950-E959). Census data were used to derive national population-based rates of self-inflicted injuries requiring inpatient treatment. Overall population-based trends in hospitalizations for self-inflicted injury were calculated and stratified by gender and age. Among youths hospitalized with a self-inflicted injury, trends were also calculated for length of stay, inpatient costs, method of injury, and associated mental disorder diagnoses.
The annual hospitalization rate of youths with self-inflicted injuries declined from 49.1 per 100,000 in 1990 to 44.9 per 100,000 in 2000, and the mean length of inpatient stay significantly declined from 3.6 days to 2.7 days. Among the hospitalized patients, there were increases in the rate of cutting (4.3% to 13.2%) and ingestion of acetaminophen (22.1% to 26.9%), antidepressants (10.0% to 14.0%), and opiates (2.3% to 3.3%) as a cause of injury, whereas there were decreases in the ingestion of salicylates (14.9% to 10.2%) and barbiturates (1.5% to 0.7%). There were significant increases in the proportion of subjects with primary mental disorder discharge diagnoses of depressive disorder (29.2% to 46.0%), bipolar disorder (1.3% to 8.2%), and substance use disorder (5.4% to 10.7%) and significant decreases in the rate of adjustment disorders (22.2% to 11.4%) and nonmental disorders (31.9% to 13.6%). After excluding cutting, which may be more closely related to self-mutilation than suicidal self-injury, the annual hospitalization rate of youths with self-inflicted injuries declined from 47.2 per 100,000 in 1990 to 39.4 per 100,000 in 2000.
Over the decade of study, young people admitted to community hospitals with self-inflicted injuries tended to have more severe psychiatric diagnoses and to be treated during shorter inpatient stays. These trends suggest that the role of youth inpatient care has narrowed, becoming focused on those with severe psychiatric disorders.

Full-text

Available from: David Shaffer, Aug 02, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
110 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To identify factors associated with psychiatric hospitalization among adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Participants were 100 adolescents, ages 13–19, who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder [(BD-I), n = 26], bipolar II disorder [(BD-II), n = 40], or operationalized criteria for BD not otherwise specified [(BD-NOS), n = 34], via the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL). Demographic, clinical, and family history variables were measured via clinical interview with the participant and a parent or guardian. Results The lifetime prevalence of psychiatric hospitalization was 50%. Significant predictors of psychiatric hospitalization in univariate analyses included older age, BD-I, history of suicide attempt, psychosis, lifetime use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), lithium, SSRI antidepressants and any medication. BD-II was negatively associated with psychiatric hospitalization. In multivariable analyses, older age, history of suicide attempt, psychosis and use of SGAs were positively associated with hospitalization, whereas BD-II was negatively associated with hospitalization. Conclusions Psychiatric hospitalization in adolescents with BD is highly prevalent and associated with older age and proxies for greater illness severity. Further studies are needed to identify strategies for reducing the need for psychiatric hospitalizations among adolescents with BD.
    Comprehensive Psychiatry 08/2014; 55(8). DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.08.048 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Suicide is among the most important mental health issues affecting adolescents today despite much research on its detection and prevention. Beyond suicide attempts (SAs), clinicians are increasingly confronted with another, potentially related problem: non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)-defined as the deliberate destruction of body tissue without intent to die. NSSI may increase risk for making an SA by sevenfold, but many studies examining this link have involved youths engaging in both NSSI and SAs. Thus, there is a need to compare homogeneous groups of adolescents engaged in NSSI-only or SA-only, but not both, to advance what is known about each form of self-harm. The self-injurious implicit association task (SI-IAT) is a particularly important computerized behavioral task to study such adolescents because the SI-IAT provides objective behavioral data about problems for which people may lack insight or be motivated to conceal, such as SAs and NSSI. We evaluated implicit associations with cutting and death/suicide using the computerized SI-IAT in three mutually exclusive groups: (1) adolescents who made an SA but had never engaged in NSSI (n = 47); (2) adolescents who engaged in NSSI but had never made an SA (n = 46); and (3) typically developing control (TDC) adolescents without history of psychiatric problems (n = 43). Nonsuicidal self-injury participants had stronger identification with cutting versus no cutting than either SA or TDC participants. Contrary to our hypothesis, NSSI participants had stronger identification with suicide/death versus life than either SA or TDC participants. Strong implicit attitudes towards suicide/death among adolescents with NSSI without a prior SA suggest that clinicians should not dismiss NSSI as not serious. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanism by which youths engaged in NSSI acquire these stronger identifications and make a first-time SA to develop novel treatment and prevention strategies blocking this transformation, ultimately reducing youth suicide. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12385 · 5.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine characteristics of hospital admissions and risk-factors associated with re-hospitalization for self-poisoning with medications in adolescents aged 10–19 years. Method This study used data from the Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) from 2008 to 2011. The main outcome was hospital readmission within the observation period. A complementary log-log regression model was used to assess the effect of characteristics at index hospital admission on readmission. Results Of 1,497 patients, 76.4% were females and 89.8% were aged 15–19 years. At their first hospital admission, about one-third received a secondary psychiatric diagnosis. Females (47.5%) were registered with an E-code for intentional self-harm more often than males (33.7%) and females were more often than males discharged to further treatment (27.8% vs. 21.5%). As many as 18.4% was re-hospitalized for self-poisoning by medications. Significant predictors for hospital readmission were female sex (HR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.7, 3.6), discharge to further treatment (HR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.8, 2.9) and psychiatric secondary diagnoses (HR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2, 1.9). Conclusion This national study demonstrated significant sex differences in adolescents treated in hospital for self-poisoning with medications. Psychiatric secondary diagnoses had a strong predictive effect on readmission, which indicates the importance of psychiatric/psychosocial assessment of adolescents who are admitted to hospital for self-poisoning with medications.
    General Hospital Psychiatry 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.09.004 · 2.90 Impact Factor