Article

Influenza: changing approaches to prevention and treatment in travelers.

Divsion of Geographic Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Journal of Travel Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.53). 01/2005; 12(1):36-44. DOI: 10.2310/7060.2005.00007
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hajj is the largest annual gatherings in Islamic world. Hajj pilgrims encounter a great deal of tough physical and mental stress. Overcrowding, extreme temperatures and electrolytes imbalance is common among pilgrims. These factors trigger the increased risk for communicable and non-communicable disease. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the patterns of common health problems (CHPs) encountered by pilgrims. Methods: CINAHL, EBSCO Host, PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were used to search for articles related to the CHPs faced by the pilgrims which were published from 1998 to 2013. Eligible articles included non-experimental, experimental studies and case reports. The patterns and types of illness among pilgrims have been explored from limited intervention based articles. Only 27 studies were included encompassing with 17, 753 respondents out of 500 articles. Results: The analysis revealed that respiratory diseases (76.2%) were the leading health problems among Hajj-pilgrims followed by skin disease (7.4%), meningococcal disease (3.7%) and heat stroke (3.7%). Conclusion: Respiratory diseases are the most common health problems encountered by Hajj-pilgrims in which influenza gave the highest percentage. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to lack of existing studies related to this area. The existing evidence was insufficient to support the patterns of illness during mass gathering. Therefore, more studies are advocated to report the incidence of respiratory disease among Hajj-pilgrims. INTRODUCTION:
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), beside diarrheas, skin lesions, and fevers of unknown origin, are one of the most common health problems acquired by travelers going to tropical and subtropical countries. Visitors to African, Asian, or South American destinations, typically characterized by harsh environmental conditions and poor sanitation standards, are at risk of exposure to a large number of pathogens causing infectious diseases. The infections are transmitted from contaminated food and water, through the air, direct contact, or by insects. The main modes of RTIs transmission include droplet infection and direct contact. The clinical spectrum of RTIs in travelers is broad, from upper respiratory tract infections, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, to influenza-like illness. The spectrum of microbial agents causing respiratory infections include numerous viruses and bacteria, rarely fungi, and parasites. Most travelers complain of mild infections, only a small minority seek medical assistance and report to health care facilities. Because of the risk of importing pathogens into Europe or North America and transferring them onto the local population, it is important to present the scale of the problem in relation to rapid development of tourism industry and an increasing number of intercontinental journeys. The aim of the study was to discuss the occurrence of travel-related respiratory infections among representatives of temperate climate traveling to and returning from the tropics.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/5584_2014_89 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hajj is the largest annual gatherings in Islamic world. Hajj pilgrims encounter a great deal of tough physical and mental stress. Overcrowding, extreme temperatures and electrolytes imbalance is common among pilgrims. These factors trigger the increased risk for communicable and non-communicable disease. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the patterns of common health problems (CHPs) encountered by pilgrims. Methods: CINAHL, EBSCO Host, PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were used to search for articles related to the CHPs faced by the pilgrims which were published from 1998 to 2013. Eligible articles included non-experimental, experimental studies and case reports. The patterns and types of illness among pilgrims have been explored from limited intervention based articles. Only 27 studies were included encompassing with 17, 753 respondents out of 500 articles. Results: The analysis revealed that respiratory diseases (76.2%) were the leading health problems among Hajj-pilgrims followed by skin disease (7.4%), meningococcal disease (3.7%) and heat stroke (3.7%). Conclusion: Respiratory diseases are the most common health problems encountered by Hajj-pilgrims in which influenza gave the highest percentage. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to lack of existing studies related to this area. The existing evidence was insufficient to support the patterns of illness during mass gathering. Therefore, more studies are advocated to report the incidence of respiratory disease among Hajj-pilgrims. INTRODUCTION:

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