Thrombospondin 1, thrombospondin 2 and the eye.
ABSTRACT Thrombospondin 1 and thrombospondin 2 (TSP1 and TSP2), which comprise the subgroup A thrombospondins, are matricellular proteins. As matricellular proteins, they modulate interactions between cells and the cellular environment, regulate cell adhesion and typically are expressed during tissue formative processes. In general, TSP1 and TSP2 counter angiogenesis (including tumour angiogenesis) and play important but contrasting roles during cutaneous repair. The two proteins are involved in development, including that of the eye, although evidence suggests that they have their greatest impact during tissue production in the adult. In the normal adult eye, they tend to be found at sites of ongoing matrix synthesis or cell-matrix interactions. At these sites, the two proteins possibly influence cellular differentiation and/or basement membrane deposition. TSP1 is also present in the intraocular fluids and drainage pathway, where it may function in maintaining the anti-angiogenic environment and in intraocular pressure control, respectively. TSP1 could also be involved in ocular immune privilege. Unlike in skin wounds, where TSP1 is derived from the blood and is present only in the early phases of repair, ocular tissue damage appears to lead to protacted TSP1 synthesis by local cells. This response might help suppress angiogenesis in the transparent tissues of the eye and so lessen visual axis opacification following injury. However, TSP2, which is also produced by damaged ophthalmic tissue and may be especially important in matrix organisation, seems to augment contraction in anomalous intraocular fibrosis. Elucidating the roles of TSP1 and TSP2 in ocular physiology and pathobiology may lead to improved therapies for neovascular, neoplastic, reparative and other ophthalmic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) has been suggested as a corneal wound-healing modulator. Therefore, we compromised the integrity of the cornea to elucidate the role of THBS1. Methods: Full-thickness penetrating corneal incisions (1.5mm) were created in wild type (WT: 129S2/SvPas) and THBS1-deficient mice (Thbs1-/-: 129S2/SvPas-Thbs1tm1Hyn/Thbs1tm1Hyn) and allowed to heal up to 1 month, while being monitored by slit lamp and intravital corneal examinations. Corneas were also examined by transmission electron microscopy and indirect-immunofluorescence. To determine how THBS1 was involved in the healing process, we examined THBS1 and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), a marker of myofibroblasts and myoepithelial cells. Results: In WT mice by 1 month, corneas appeared transparent with a thin scar, and endothelium and Descemet's membrane (DM) were restored. In contrast, Thbs1-/- corneas exhibited chronic edema and persistent opacity after wounding. DM and endothelium were not restored, and wound contraction was impaired. THBS1 was localized in epithelial cells at early stages of the healing process and in the stroma and endothelial cells during later stages. SMA-positive epithelial cells and myofibroblasts were observed within the healing area at day 4, peaked at day 14 and disappeared at day 30. SMA-positive cells were greatly reduced in Thbs1-/- mice. Conclusion: In the current study, we demonstrated that corneal restoration is strikingly compromised by a penetrating incision in Thbs1-/- mice. The wound results in persistent edema and wound gaping. This appears to be the result of the lack of endothelial migration and DM restoration. In addition, myofibroblast formation is compromised, resulting in the lack of wound contraction.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 08/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy affecting approximately 60 million people worldwide and is the second most common cause of irreversible blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for developing glaucoma and is caused by impaired aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC). In primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), this elevation in IOP in turn leads to deformation at the optic nerve head (ONH) specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also a deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagen and fibronectin. Matricellular proteins are non-structural secreted glycoproteins that help cells communicate with their surrounding ECM. This family of proteins includes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, thrombospondins (TSPs), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), periostin, osteonectin, and Tenascin-C and -X and other ECM proteins. All members appear to play a role in fibrosis and increased ECM deposition. Most are widely expressed in tissues particularly in the TM and ONH and deficiency of TSP1 and SPARC have been shown to lower IOP in mouse models of glaucoma through enhanced outflow facility. The role of these proteins in glaucoma is emerging as some have an association with the pathophysiology of the TM and LC regions and might therefore be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in glaucoma.Matrix Biology 01/2014; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Thrombospondins are a family of large multi-domain glycoproteins described as matricelluar proteins based on their ability to interact with a broad range of receptors, matrix molecules, growth factors or proteases, and to modulate array of cellular functions including intracellular signaling, proliferation and migration. Two members of the thrombospondin family, thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and thrombospondin 2 (TSP-2) are studied extensively to determine their structure and function. While expressed at low levels in normal adult tissues, their increased expression is seen predominantly in response to cellular perturbations. Despite structural similarities, a notable functional difference between TSP-1 and TSP-2 includes the ability of former to activate of latent TGF-β and its competitive inhibition by the latter. Both these thrombospondins are reported to play important roles in TGF-β rich ocular environment with most reports related to TSP-1. They are expressed by many ocular cell types and detectable in the aqueous and vitreous humor. TSP-1 and TSP-2 influence many cellular interactions in the eye such as angiogenesis, cell migration, wound healing, TGF-β activation and regulation of inflammatory immune responses. Together, these processes are known to contribute to the immune privilege status of the eye. Emerging roles of TSP-1 and TSP-2 in ocular functions and pathology are reviewed here.Current eye research 02/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor