Thrombospondin 1, thrombospondin 2 and the eye.
ABSTRACT Thrombospondin 1 and thrombospondin 2 (TSP1 and TSP2), which comprise the subgroup A thrombospondins, are matricellular proteins. As matricellular proteins, they modulate interactions between cells and the cellular environment, regulate cell adhesion and typically are expressed during tissue formative processes. In general, TSP1 and TSP2 counter angiogenesis (including tumour angiogenesis) and play important but contrasting roles during cutaneous repair. The two proteins are involved in development, including that of the eye, although evidence suggests that they have their greatest impact during tissue production in the adult. In the normal adult eye, they tend to be found at sites of ongoing matrix synthesis or cell-matrix interactions. At these sites, the two proteins possibly influence cellular differentiation and/or basement membrane deposition. TSP1 is also present in the intraocular fluids and drainage pathway, where it may function in maintaining the anti-angiogenic environment and in intraocular pressure control, respectively. TSP1 could also be involved in ocular immune privilege. Unlike in skin wounds, where TSP1 is derived from the blood and is present only in the early phases of repair, ocular tissue damage appears to lead to protacted TSP1 synthesis by local cells. This response might help suppress angiogenesis in the transparent tissues of the eye and so lessen visual axis opacification following injury. However, TSP2, which is also produced by damaged ophthalmic tissue and may be especially important in matrix organisation, seems to augment contraction in anomalous intraocular fibrosis. Elucidating the roles of TSP1 and TSP2 in ocular physiology and pathobiology may lead to improved therapies for neovascular, neoplastic, reparative and other ophthalmic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix plays an important role in stem cell niche which maintains the undifferentiated stem cell phenotype. Human corneal epithelial stem cells are presumed to reside mainly at the limbal basal epithelium. Efforts have been made to characterize different components of the extracellular matrix that are preferentially expressed at the limbus. Mounting evidence from experimental data suggest that these components are part of the stem cell niche and play a role in the homeostasis of limbal stem cells. The extracellular matrix provides a mechanical and structural support as well as regulates cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation. Optimization of the extracellular matrix components might be able to recreate an ex vivo stem cell niche to expand limbal stem cells.12/2012; 3(4):879-94. DOI:10.3390/jfb3040879
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ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy affecting approximately 60 million people worldwide and is the second most common cause of irreversible blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for developing glaucoma and is caused by impaired aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC). In primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), this elevation in IOP in turn leads to deformation at the optic nerve head (ONH) specifically at the lamina cribrosa (LC) region where there is also a deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagen and fibronectin. Matricellular proteins are non-structural secreted glycoproteins that help cells communicate with their surrounding ECM. This family of proteins includes connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), also known as CCN2, thrombospondins (TSPs), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), periostin, osteonectin, and Tenascin-C and -X and other ECM proteins. All members appear to play a role in fibrosis and increased ECM deposition. Most are widely expressed in tissues particularly in the TM and ONH and deficiency of TSP1 and SPARC have been shown to lower IOP in mouse models of glaucoma through enhanced outflow facility. The role of these proteins in glaucoma is emerging as some have an association with the pathophysiology of the TM and LC regions and might therefore be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in glaucoma.Matrix Biology 07/2014; 37. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2014.03.007 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, and intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important modifiable risk factor. IOP is a function of aqueous humor production and aqueous humor outflow, and it is thought that prolonged IOP elevation leads to optic nerve damage over time. Within the trabecular meshwork (TM), the eye's primary drainage system for aqueous humor, matricellular proteins generally allow cells to modulate their attachments with and alter the characteristics of their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). It is now well established that ECM turnover in the TM affects outflow facility, and matricellular proteins are emerging as significant players in IOP regulation. The formalized study of matricellular proteins in TM has gained increased attention. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), myocilin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and thrombospondin-1 and -2 (TSP-1 and -2) have been localized to the TM, and a growing body of evidence suggests that these matricellular proteins play an important role in IOP regulation and possibly the pathophysiology of POAG. As evidence continues to emerge, these proteins are now seen as potential therapeutic targets. Further study is warranted to assess their utility in treating glaucoma in humans.Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 06/2014; 30(6). DOI:10.1089/jop.2014.0013 · 1.42 Impact Factor