Porcine CYP2A polymorphisms and activity.
ABSTRACT CYP2A6 in man catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine-forming cotinine and 7-hydroxylation of coumarin, which is used as test substrate for CYP2A6 in man. Large interindividual differences are found in man and some are due to genetic polymorphism. The 7-hydroxylation of coumarin is present in pigs, and an inter-individual variation has been found that might be due to polymorphisms. To enable the finding of polymorphism in pigs, the minipig cDNA was sequenced. Two cDNAs were found and translated to a 494 and a 487 amino acid long protein, both cDNAs were found in all but one pig. The 494 a.a. protein showed high homology to the human and 100% homology to the conventional pig CYP2A19 protein. In the wild type protein, all 6 substrate recognition sites were found, whereas the short protein only contained the first 5 substrate recognition sites. SSCP analysis revealed 3 polymorphisms. In order to study the effect of these polymorphisms on enzyme activity, microsomes were incubated with nicotine and coumarin. The polymorphisms appeared to have no effect on either enzyme activity as the specific enzyme activity towards nicotine and coumarin were approximately the same for all pigs. The specificity of pig CYP2A was investigated and it was found that the formation of cotinine correlated with the immunochemical level of CYP2A as did the coumarin hydroxylation. Anti-human CYP2A inhibitory antibody inhibited coumarin 7-hydroxylation by about 90% and formation of cotinine by 44--60% and 85--100% at substrate concentrations of 500 microM and 50 microM respectively, showing that coumarin and nicotine (50 microM) are very specific substrates for CYP2A in pigs, whereas the CYP2A only is responsible for about 50% of the cotinine formation at a 500 microM nicotine incubation concentration. These results show that the large interindividual differences in porcine CYP2A activity are not caused by polymorphisms but transcriptional regulation and the coumarin 7-hydroxylation is as specific a reaction for porcine CYP2A as for human CYP2A6.
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ABSTRACT: The role of different cytochrome P450 enzymes on the metabolism of 3-methylindole (3MI) was investigated using selective chemical inhibitors. Eight chemical inhibitors of P450 enzymes were screened for their inhibitory specificity towards 3MI metabolism in porcine microsomes: alpha-naphthoflavone (CYP1A1/2), 8-methoxypsoralen (CYP2A6), menthofuran (CYP2A6), diethyldithiocarbamate (CYP2A6), 4-methylpyrazole (CYP2E1), sulphaphenazole (CYP2C9), quinidine (CYP2D6), and troleandomycin (CYP3A4). The production of 3MI metabolites was only affected by the presence of inhibitors of CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 in the microsomal incubations. In a second experiment, a set of porcine microsomes (n = 30) was analyzed for CYP2A6 content by protein immunoblot analysis and for their coumarin 7-hydroxylation activity (CYP2A6 activity). Both CYP2A6 content and enzymatic activity were found to be highly and negatively correlated with 3MI fat content. The results of the present study indicate that the CYP2A6 porcine ortholog plays an important role in the metabolism of 3MI and that measurement of CYP2A6 levels and/or activity could be a useful marker for 3MI-induced boar taint.Toxicological Sciences 07/2000; 55(2):284-92. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 constitutes 5-10% of the total microsomal CYPs of human liver. Although CYP2A6 is the major coumarin 7-hydroxylase, other known substrates of CYP2A6 include many toxicants and precarcinogens. The chemical structure diversity of these substrates raises the question of their selectivity. Thus, kinetic parameters were determined for the hydroxylation of five substrates of diverse chemical structures known to be selective for cytochrome P450 2A6: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), nicotine, coumarin, N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine (NBzMA), and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). Sources of enzymes were either human liver microsomes or heterologously expressed CYPs. Coumarin was shown to be the substrate with the highest affinity, followed by NDEA, nicotine, NBzMA, and MTBE. Variability of CYP2A6 catalytic activities in human liver was between 24-fold for MTBE to sevenfold for coumarin, while CYP2A6 content varied 68-fold in human liver microsomes. These five catalytic activities were highly significantly correlated between them and with hepatic CYP2A6 content. The most selective chemical inhibitor of these five substrates was shown to be 8-methoxypsoralen. Based upon chemical inhibition of the enzymatic activities of pure recombinant human CYPs, it cannot be totally excluded that P450s other than CYP2A6, especially CYP2E1, are involved, although to a lesser extent, in NDEA and NBzMA metabolism. In conclusion, the prototype probes for CYP2A6 phenotyping are coumarin and nicotine.Toxicology Letters 10/2003; 144(1):77-91. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The results of homology modelling of the human P450 enzyme CYP2A6, based on the CYP2C5 crystallographic template structure are reported. A substantial number of selective substrates of the CYP2A6 enzyme fit the putative active site in a manner that is consistent with their known metabolites. Moreover, the evidence from site-directed mutagenesis experiments is in accordance with the current model, particularly in relation to complementary amino acid contacts within the haem environment. The binding of substrates is rationalized in terms of QSAR analyses and from a consideration of the contributory factors affecting the binding affinity. The latter approach appears to represent a highly correlated (R=0.99) method for estimating the relative strength of enzyme-substrate binding within CYP2A6-selective compounds, albeit within a fairly limited dataset of substrates.Toxicology in Vitro 05/2003; 17(2):179-90. · 2.65 Impact Factor