Porcine CYP2A Polymorphism and activity

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Laboratory of Toxicology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Basic &amp Clinical Pharmacology &amp Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.38). 09/2005; 97(2):115-21. DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2005.pto_148.x
Source: PubMed


CYP2A6 in man catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine-forming cotinine and 7-hydroxylation of coumarin, which is used as test substrate for CYP2A6 in man. Large interindividual differences are found in man and some are due to genetic polymorphism. The 7-hydroxylation of coumarin is present in pigs, and an inter-individual variation has been found that might be due to polymorphisms. To enable the finding of polymorphism in pigs, the minipig cDNA was sequenced. Two cDNAs were found and translated to a 494 and a 487 amino acid long protein, both cDNAs were found in all but one pig. The 494 a.a. protein showed high homology to the human and 100% homology to the conventional pig CYP2A19 protein. In the wild type protein, all 6 substrate recognition sites were found, whereas the short protein only contained the first 5 substrate recognition sites. SSCP analysis revealed 3 polymorphisms. In order to study the effect of these polymorphisms on enzyme activity, microsomes were incubated with nicotine and coumarin. The polymorphisms appeared to have no effect on either enzyme activity as the specific enzyme activity towards nicotine and coumarin were approximately the same for all pigs. The specificity of pig CYP2A was investigated and it was found that the formation of cotinine correlated with the immunochemical level of CYP2A as did the coumarin hydroxylation. Anti-human CYP2A inhibitory antibody inhibited coumarin 7-hydroxylation by about 90% and formation of cotinine by 44--60% and 85--100% at substrate concentrations of 500 microM and 50 microM respectively, showing that coumarin and nicotine (50 microM) are very specific substrates for CYP2A in pigs, whereas the CYP2A only is responsible for about 50% of the cotinine formation at a 500 microM nicotine incubation concentration. These results show that the large interindividual differences in porcine CYP2A activity are not caused by polymorphisms but transcriptional regulation and the coumarin 7-hydroxylation is as specific a reaction for porcine CYP2A as for human CYP2A6.

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Available from: Mette Skaanild, Nov 17, 2014
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    • "Cytochrome P450 member 2A19 (CYP2A19), which is the pig ortholog of human CYP2A6, catalyses 7-hydroxylation of coumarin in pigs [26], in addition to being involved in skatole metabolism [29]. In this study, CYP2A19 was significantly down-regulated in DH boars. "
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    ABSTRACT: Boar taint is the unpleasant odour and flavour of the meat of uncastrated male pigs that is primarily caused by high levels of androstenone and skatole in adipose tissue. Androstenone is a steroid and its levels are mainly genetically determined. Studies on androstenone metabolism have, however, focused on a limited number of genes. Identification of additional genes influencing levels of androstenone may facilitate implementation of marker assisted breeding practices. In this study, microarrays were used to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways related to androstenone metabolism in the liver from boars with extreme levels of androstenone in adipose tissue. Liver tissue samples from 58 boars of the two breeds Duroc and Norwegian Landrace, 29 with extreme high and 29 with extreme low levels of androstenone, were selected from more than 2500 individuals. The samples were hybridised to porcine cDNA microarrays and the 1% most significant differentially expressed genes were considered significant. Among the differentially expressed genes were metabolic phase I related genes belonging to the cytochrome P450 family and the flavin-containing monooxygenase FMO1. Additionally, phase II conjugation genes including UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A5, UGT2A1 and UGT2B15, sulfotransferase STE, N-acetyltransferase NAT12 and glutathione S-transferase were identified. Phase I and phase II metabolic reactions increase the water solubility of steroids and play a key role in their elimination. Differential expression was also found for genes encoding 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD17B2, HSD17B4, HSD17B11 and HSD17B13) and plasma proteins alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and orosomucoid (ORM1). 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and plasma proteins regulate the availability of steroids by controlling the amount of active steroids accessible to receptors and available for metabolism. Differences in the expression of FMO1, NAT12, HSD17B2 and HSD17B13 were verified by quantitative real competitive PCR. A number of genes and pathways related to metabolism of androstenone in liver were identified, including new candidate genes involved in phase I oxidation metabolism, phase II conjugation metabolism, and regulation of steroid availability. The study is a first step towards a deeper understanding of enzymes and regulators involved in pathways of androstenone metabolism and may ultimately lead to the discovery of markers to reduce boar taint.
    BMC Veterinary Research 09/2008; 4(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-4-29 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "The COH activity assay is an established method for estimating CYP2A6 activity in human microsomes and in hepatocytes isolated from human, rabbit, dog, and rat livers (Donato et al., 1998a). A porcine CYP2A that has COH activity has been described and characterized (Skaanild and Friis, 2005) and is referred to as CYP2A19, which is currently the only known porcine CYP2A. The PNP conversion to PNC has been used for in vitro estimation of CYP2E1 activity in rats and humans (Donato et al., 1998b; Jiang et al., 1998) and has been used in microsomes prepared from minipig liver (Baranova et al., 2005) The inhibition curves (Fig. 2) demonstrate the difficulty in specifically inhibiting one enzyme (CYP2A versus CYP2E1) without affecting the other. "
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of 3-methylindole (3MI) in uncastrated male pigs (boars) is a major cause of boar taint, which negatively affects the quality of meat from the animal. Previously, CYP2E1 and CYP2A have been identified as cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms involved in the metabolism of 3MI using porcine liver microsomes. This study further examines the role of these isoforms in the metabolism of 3MI using a primary porcine hepatocyte model by examining metabolic profiles of 3MI after incubation with P450 inhibitors. Incubation of hepatocytes with 4-methylpyrazole resulted in a selective inhibition of CYP2E1 activity as determined by p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity and an associated significant decrease in the production of the 3MI metabolites 3-hydroxy-3-methyloxindole and 3-methyloxindole. Furthermore, inhibition of CYP2A, as assayed by coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity, using 8-methoxypsoralen and diethyldithiocarbamate was not associated with any further significant inhibition of the production of 3MI metabolites. Treatment with general P450 inhibitors resulted in further decreases in CYP2E1 activity and a more dramatic decrease in the production of 3MI metabolites, suggesting that additional P450s may be involved in the phase 1 metabolism of 3-methylindole. In conclusion, CYP2E1 activity levels are more important than CYP2A activity levels for the metabolism of 3-methylindole in isolated pig hepatocytes.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 06/2006; 34(5):848-54. DOI:10.1124/dmd.105.008128 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of drug metabolizing cytochrome P4502A (CYP2A) is highly gender-dependent in minipigs with the highest activity in females. In other species, orthologs of CYP2A have been shown to be under the regulation of nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor, whereas little is known about regulation in pigs. To investigate the effect of sex hormones on porcine cytochrome P450 CYP2A and CYP3A expression was assessed in liver samples taken before and after castration of sexually mature minipig boars. Removal of the primary androgen source resulted in significant increases of CYP2A mRNA, protein and enzyme activity levels. Likewise, expression of CYP3A was increased, although to a lesser extent. To examine the involvement of constitutive androstane receptor in the regulation of CYP2A, primary porcine hepatocytes were exposed to modulators of murine constitutive androstane receptor and human constitutive androstane receptor activity. The CYP2A activity was significantly increased by exposure to phenobarbital, an indirect activator of constitutive androstane receptor, and the human constitutive androstane receptor-ligand CITCO. In contrast, no effect was seen following exposure to the potent murine constitutive androstane receptor-ligand TCPOBOP and the hormonal murine constitutive androstane receptor-ligands androstenol and oestrone. Thus, the results support that 1) porcine CYP2A is reversibly inhibited by androgens on a transcriptional basis in vivo; 2) the induction profile of CYP2A in vitro shares similarity with that of human constitutive androstane receptor-regulated CYPs, indicating an involvement of a porcine constitutive androstane receptor in the regulation of CYP2A.
    Basic &amp Clinical Pharmacology &amp Toxicology 06/2006; 98(5):480-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2006.pto_261.x · 2.38 Impact Factor
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