Ischemic preconditioning in the rat brain enhances the repair of endogenous oxidative DNA damage by activating the base-excision repair pathway.
ABSTRACT The development of ischemic tolerance in the brain, whereby a brief period of sublethal 'preconditioning' ischemia attenuates injury from subsequent severe ischemia, may involve the activation of multiple intracellular signaling events that promote neuronal survival. In this study, the potential role of inducible DNA base-excision repair (BER), an endogenous adaptive response that prevents the detrimental effect of oxidative DNA damage, has been studied in the rat model of ischemic tolerance produced by three episodes of ischemic preconditioning (IP). This paradigm of IP, when applied 2 and 5 days before 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), significantly decreased infarct volume in the frontal-parietal cortex 72 h later. Correlated with this protective effect, IP markedly attenuated the nuclear accumulations of several oxidative DNA lesions, including 8-oxodG, AP sites, and DNA strand breaks, after 2-h MCAO. Consequently, harmful DNA damage-responsive events, including NAD depletion and p53 activation, were reduced during postischemic reperfusion in preconditioned brains. The mechanism underlying the decreased DNA damage in preconditioned brain was then investigated by measuring BER activities in nuclear extracts. Beta-polymerase-mediated BER activity was markedly increased after IP, and this activation occurred before (24 h) and during the course of ischemic tolerance (48 to 72 h). In similar patterns, the activities for AP site and 8-oxodG incisions were also upregulated after IP. The upregulation of BER activities after IP was likely because of increased expression of repair enzymes beta-polymerase, AP endonuclease, and OGG1. These results suggest that the activation of the BER pathway may contribute to IP-induced neuroprotection by enhancing the repair of endogenous oxidative DNA damage after ischemic injury.
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ABSTRACT: Base excision repair (BER) is one of the cellular defense mechanisms repairing damage to nucleoside 5'-monophosphate residues in genomic DNA. This repair pathway is initiated by spontaneous or enzymatic N-glycosidic bond cleavage creating an abasic or apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) site in double-stranded DNA. Class II AP endonuclease, deoxyribonucleotide phosphate (dRP) lyase, DNA synthesis, and DNA ligase activities complete repair of the AP site. In mammalian cell nuclear extract, BER can be mediated by a macromolecular complex containing DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) and DNA ligase I. These two enzymes are capable of contributing the latter three of the four BER enzymatic activities. In the present study, we found that AP site BER can be reconstituted in vitro using the following purified human proteins: AP endonuclease, beta-pol, and DNA ligase I. Examination of the individual enzymatic steps in BER allowed us to identify an ordered reaction pathway: subsequent to 5' "nicking" of the AP site-containing DNA strand by AP endonuclease, beta-pol performs DNA synthesis prior to removal of the 5'-dRP moiety in the gap. Removal of the dRP flap is strictly required for DNA ligase I to seal the resulting nick. Additionally, the catalytic rate of the reconstituted BER system and the individual enzymatic activities was measured. The reconstituted BER system performs repair of AP site DNA at a rate that is slower than the respective rates of AP endonuclease, DNA synthesis, and ligation, suggesting that these steps are not rate-determining in the overall reconstituted BER system. Instead, the rate-limiting step in the reconstituted system was found to be removal of dRP (i.e. dRP lyase), catalyzed by the amino-terminal domain of beta-pol. This work is the first to measure the rate of BER in an in vitro reaction. The potential significance of the dRP-containing intermediate in the regulation of BER is discussed.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1998; 273(33):21203-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of reactive oxygen species in cells ensures that the oxidatively damaged base 8-oxoguanine will be generated at high frequency in the DNA of all living organisms. DNA damage threatens genomic integrity: enzymes have evolved that protect prokaryotes and eukaryotes from the mutagenic effect of this ubiquitous lesion.Trends in Genetics 08/1993; 9(7):246-9. · 9.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A broad array of oxidative stresses modulates gene expression in a variety of mammalian cells. One goal of this review was to characterize cellular responses to oxidative injury, how these processes are regulated, and the outcome for a particular cell or tissue. Many genes induced in response to specific oxidant stresses have been identified and include transcription factors, replication proteins, proteases, protease inhibitors, proteins affecting cell proliferation and various antioxidants, i.e. heme oxygenase, MT, and MnSOD. The latter enzyme is induced after a number of cytokines and oxidant stresses including hyperoxia and mineral dusts causing inflammation. Moreover, increases in mRNA levels of TNF and IL-1, cytokines inducing MnSOD, are observed after exposure to UV and ionizing radiation. Since increased electron flow could lead to generation of more AOS within mitochondria, increased levels of MnSOD might be necessary to maintain normal functioning of the mitochondria after oxidative stress. Alterations in cell growth are intrinsically related to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Paradoxically, some of the responses of cells to oxidative stress reflect cytotoxicity and cytostasis, whereas others result in increased cell proliferation. For example, induction of gadd genes observed after oxidative stress is related to growth arrest of cells, a response which might enable the cell to repair oxidative damage prior to replication. This phenomenon might prevent fixation of mutations associated with oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, increased mRNA expression and activity of ODC, observed after exposure of cells to UV or asbestos is associated with increased cell proliferation. In addition, increased mRNA expression of cellular proto-oncogenes observed after exposure to oxidants could also be related to increased DNA synthesis or proliferation. Figure 5 provides a general scheme of cell responses to oxidative stress and possible ramifications. AOS can react with a number of target molecules including proteins, lipids, and DNA. These interactions elicit a number of signals including activation of gene regulatory factors (transcription factors) which in turn activate oxidative stress-responsive genes or regulons. Consequently, a number of proteins are produced with distinctive functions including DNA repair enzymes, antioxidants, proteases inhibitors, cytokines and proteins affecting cell proliferation. These cellular responses to AOS can lead to restoration of normal cellular function and adaptation to oxidative stress, cell death or aberrant proliferation. It is the latter two responses which can lead to a variety of disease states including cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Laboratory Investigation 10/1993; 69(3):261-74. · 3.96 Impact Factor