Cataract surgery in Fuchs' dystrophy.
ABSTRACT Corneal decompensation after cataract surgery can occur in patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of corneal edema in Fuchs' dystrophy, the preoperative and perioperative risk factors for corneal endothelial cell loss during cataract surgery, and indications for cataract surgery alone or cataract surgery combined with keratoplasty for patients with visually significant cataracts and Fuchs' dystrophy.
Accelerated loss of corneal endothelial cells in Fuchs' dystrophy is multifactorial, with apoptosis and altered gene regulation of aquaporin proteins playing a role. Preoperative factors contributing to decreased endothelial cell count include age, sex, diabetes, a history of ocular trauma or inflammation, and contact lens wear. Intra-operative measures shown to protect endothelial cells include the use of the soft-shell viscoelastic technique for very dense cataracts, efficient cataract removal techniques (phaco-chop, use of oscillatory handpiece), and surgery by an experienced surgeon. A triple procedure should be performed with preoperative corneal epithelial decompensation and considered with preoperative pachymetry greater than 640 mum. Otherwise, it is reasonable to attempt cataract surgery alone with proper patient education.
Fuchs' dystrophy is a progressive disorder. Cataract surgery in the setting of Fuchs' dystrophy can be performed successfully, especially when the surgeon is aware of the preoperative and intraoperative factors that affect the number of functioning endothelial cells. All patients should be aware of the progressive nature of this disease and the possibility of keratoplasty at some point in their lifetime.
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ABSTRACT: To ascertain preoperative and intraoperative factors that predict the need for endothelial keratoplasty (EK) in patients with Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) undergoing cataract surgery. Prospective, observational cohort study. Eighty-nine patients (89 eyes) with FECD who require cataract surgery. One month before cataract surgery, we assessed best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, straylight, keratometry, ultrasonic pachymetry, intraocular pressure, 7 corneal features of FECD and cataract density at slit-lamp examination, and corneal backscatter using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM; Confoscan 4, NIDEK Technologies, Padova, Italy). After surgery, measurements were repeated at 1, 2, and 12 months. We used stepwise binary logistic regression analysis to evaluate 30 preoperative and 5 intraoperative parameters for their ability to predict the postoperative need for EK. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the predictive factors were used to identify their optimal cutoff points. Central corneal thickness (CCT) and backscatter at the basal epithelial cell layer (EV). After cataract surgery, 35 (39%) of 89 eyes underwent EK to restore vision. Of all preoperative and intraoperative parameters, only CCT and EV were identified as significant factors, predictive of the need for EK. The area under the ROC curve of EV was significantly higher than that of CCT (P = 0.003), whereas a combination of both factors in a linear discriminant function did not improve the predictive value (P = 0.66). As optimal cutoff points, we chose 1894 scatter units for EV and 630 μm for CCT. Both cutoff points correspond with a specificity of 94% and represent sensitivity of 63% for EV and 40% for CCT. Backscatter at the basal epithelial cell layer measured by IVCM predicts the need for EK after cataract surgery in patients with FECD. As an indicator for the corneal hydration state, the EV improves patient selection for combined cataract surgery and EK. In deciding whether to perform a triple procedure, CCT remains a less effective, but adequate, alternative. Regardless of the predictive factor used, a tailor-made approach is recommended accounting for individuals' expectations. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.Ophthalmology 11/2013; 121(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.09.047 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the natural course of the long-term endothelial cell changes in Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD) patients and investigate the effects of phacoemulsification on the annual rate of change in endothelial indices in FCD patients. Thirty-four patients diagnosed with FCD at Seoul National University Hospital from 1994 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixteen patients who had been followed up for more than 1 year were selected and classified into 3 groups: group A, patients with no ocular surgery; group B, patients who had undergone phacoemulsification only; and group C, patients who had undergone penetrating keratoplasty with cataract surgery. Endothelial cell density, polymegethism, pleomorphism, and pachymetry were measured and the exponential rates of endothelial cell and pachymetry change were analyzed. A non-linear mixed model of non-operated FCD patients showed that only pachymetric data tended to increase with statistical significance (p = 0.001) with a mean follow-up period of 4.15 years. Using an exponential regression analysis fitting curve, the mean rates of annual endothelial cell loss were 0.82%/yr, 20.39%/yr, and 29.27%/yr in groups A, B, and C respectively, and statistical significance was seen only in group C (p < 0.05). Retrospective long-term follow-up data showed that changes in endothelial density did not significantly decrease over at least 4 years in middle-aged FCD patients. The changes in pachymetric corneal thickness appeared to increase over the same period. Considering that no exponential changes were aggravated after performing cataract surgery alone, cataract surgery would be a preferable option in FCD patients compared to an approach of "wait-and-do" penetrating keratoplasty combined with cataract surgery.Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 12/2013; 27(6):409-15. DOI:10.3341/kjo.2013.27.6.409
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 07/2009; 35(7):1314–1315. DOI:10.1016/j.jcrs.2008.12.050 · 2.55 Impact Factor