Metabolic syndrome is associated with extension of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.
ABSTRACT Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises a group of factors that are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. Acute coronary syndromes account for the most important part of cardiovascular events with considerable morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate the association of MS with extension of coronary artery disease in patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Three hundred and six consecutive patients (220 men, 86 women patients) with the diagnosis of NSTE ACS, who were hospitalized within the first 24 h of their chest pain in the coronary care unit, were prospectively enrolled into our study. Patients with elevation of troponins (T or I) were classified as NSTE myocardial infarction (MI) and otherwise as unstable angina pectoris (USAP). Components of MS were noted as previously identified. Coronary angiograms were evaluated by two authors, who were blinded to the study plan and each other, via Sullivan's method.
MS was noted in 49% of all patients, and was significantly more common in women than in men (62.8 versus 43.6%, P=0.003). The mean total stenosis score of patients with MS was significantly higher than for those without MS (16+/-6 versus 12+/-5, P<0.001), and the mean extension score of patients with MS was significantly higher than for those without MS (63+/-29 versus 44+/-26, P<0.001). The presence of MS together with some clinical factors and poor total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, was found to be independently predictive of extension of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a group of patients presenting with NSTE ACS.
MS is independently associated with CAD extension, and hence, might account for poor cardiovascular outcomes through CAD extension in patients with NSTE ACS.
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome consists of a cluster of metabolic disorders, many of which promote the development of atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease events. Insulin resistance may lie at the heart of the metabolic syndrome. Elevated serum triglycerides commonly associate with insulin resistance and represent a valuable clinical marker of the metabolic syndrome. Abdominal obesity is a clinical marker for insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome manifests 4 categories of abnormality: atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, increased small low-density lipoproteins, and decreased high-density lipoproteins), increased blood pressure, elevated plasma glucose, and a prothrombotic state. Various therapeutic approaches for the patient with the metabolic syndrome should be implemented to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease events. These interventions include decreasing obesity, increasing physical activity, and managing dyslipidemia; the latter may require the use of pharmacotherapy with cholesterol-lowering and triglyceride-lowering drugs.The American Journal of Cardiology 06/1999; 83(9B):25F-29F. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome, a concurrence of disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, overweight and abdominal fat distribution, mild dyslipidemia, and hypertension, is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite its high prevalence, little is known of the prospective association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular and overall mortality. To assess the association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular and overall mortality using recently proposed definitions and factor analysis. The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1209 Finnish men aged 42 to 60 years at baseline (1984-1989) who were initially without CVD, cancer, or diabetes. Follow-up continued through December 1998. Death due to coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and any cause among men with vs without the metabolic syndrome, using 4 definitions based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 8.8% to 14.3%, depending on the definition. There were 109 deaths during the approximately 11.4-year follow-up, of which 46 and 27 were due to CVD and CHD, respectively. Men with the metabolic syndrome as defined by the NCEP were 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.2) to 4.2 (95% CI, 1.6-10.8) times more likely and, as defined by the WHO, 2.9 (95% CI, 1.2-6.8) to 3.3 (95% CI, 1.4-7.7) times more likely to die of CHD after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The metabolic syndrome as defined by the WHO was associated with 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-5.1) to 3.0 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7) times higher CVD mortality and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-3.0) to 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.3) times higher all-cause mortality. The NCEP definition less consistently predicted CVD and all-cause mortality. Factor analysis using 13 variables associated with metabolic or cardiovascular risk yielded a metabolic syndrome factor that explained 18% of total variance. Men with loadings on the metabolic factor in the highest quarter were 3.6 (95% CI, 1.7-7.9), 3.2 (95% CI, 1.7-5.8), and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5-3.4) times more likely to die of CHD, CVD, and any cause, respectively. Cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality are increased in men with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of baseline CVD and diabetes. Early identification, treatment, and prevention of the metabolic syndrome present a major challenge for health care professionals facing an epidemic of overweight and sedentary lifestyle.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2003; 288(21):2709-16. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory markers have been associated with adverse clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In addition, angiographic plaque morphology and extension of coronary artery disease has been related to worse prognosis in this group of patients. The aim of the present study was to determine if the clinical prognostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, can by associated with the angiographic findings in patients with non-ST elevation ACS. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1253 patients with non-ST elevation ACS. CRP, which was considered positive (+) if >/=3 mg/l, was measured at a median of 9 h from symptoms onset and were kept blinded until the end of the study. Coronary angiography was performed in 633 patients (50%). The presence of complex coronary lesions (CCLs) was defined as the presence of any of the following: thrombus (+), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow </=2, and/or ulcerated plaque (UP). The extension of coronary disease was defined as one, two or three vessel disease. CRP was found to be (+) in 354 patients (60%). CCLs were present in 266 patients (46%), 166 (47%) in CRP (+) and 100 (42%) in CRP negative (-) patients, P=0.31. There was also no association between the extension of coronary disease and the CRP levels. In this large consecutive cohort of non-ST elevation ACS patients, CRP, an inflammatory marker, does not predict either the extension or the complexity of coronary disease. Even though CRP is a strong predictor of worse clinical outcome in patients with ACS, this could not be explained by the angiographic anatomic findings.Coronary Artery Disease 01/2005; 15(8):477-84. · 1.11 Impact Factor