Physical activity considerations for the treatment and prevention of obesity.
ABSTRACT Overweight and obesity present significant public health concerns because of the link with numerous chronic health conditions. Excess body weight is a result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Physical activity is the most variable component of energy expenditure and therefore has been the target of behavioral interventions to modify body weight. It appears that physical activity is an important component on long-term weight control, and therefore adequate levels of activity should be prescribed to combat the obesity epidemic. Although there is evidence that 30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity may improve health outcomes, the amount of physical activity that may be necessary to control body weight may be >30 min/d. There is a growing body of scientific literature suggesting that at least 60 min of moderate-intensity physical activity may be necessary to maximize weight loss and prevent significant weight regain. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity appear to be important for the prevention of weight gain and the development of obesity. Physical activity also appears to have an independent effect on health-related outcomes when compared with body weight, suggesting that adequate levels of activity may counteract the negative influence of body weight on health outcomes. Thus, it is important to target intervention strategies to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of an adequate amount of physical activity to control body weight.
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ABSTRACT: Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged.
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ABSTRACT: Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (≥40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for those with low financial and time resources. Consideration of non-labor market time use patterns may improve strategies to increase physical activity and decrease inactivity among full-time employed adults in sedentary jobs.Social Science [?] Medicine 09/2014; 120C:126-134. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.09.010 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An appropriate level of physical activity is an important element of a strategy for achieving and maintaining the correct body mass, which is a key factor related to reducing health-related risks. This study was aimed at evaluating body mass and body composition as well as selected biochemical indexes in women in relation to their physical activity in the context of health risks. The study included 368 women aged 39 to 60. Depending on the physical activity, significant differences in the body mass, fat and fat free body mass, the BMI and waist and hip circumferences were found. Women with low physical activity had a body mass higher by about 5 kg on average than the active women, and for women with no physical activity the difference amounted to about 9 kg. Women with no physical activity were found to have waist circumferences greater by about 8 cm on average than the active women. The average BMI for active women was significantly lower than for those with no physical activity (25.5 vs. 28.9 kg/m2). The total cholesterol level in the entire group of women included in the study was found to be elevated, regardless of the level of physical activity. The serum levels of glucose, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol consistent with reference ranges were found in women with no physical activity. The anthropometric parameters in women with low physical activity were likely to increase the risk of developing diet-related diseases.Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 01/2009; 59:271-273.