Physical activity considerations for the treatment and prevention of obesity.
ABSTRACT Overweight and obesity present significant public health concerns because of the link with numerous chronic health conditions. Excess body weight is a result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Physical activity is the most variable component of energy expenditure and therefore has been the target of behavioral interventions to modify body weight. It appears that physical activity is an important component on long-term weight control, and therefore adequate levels of activity should be prescribed to combat the obesity epidemic. Although there is evidence that 30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity may improve health outcomes, the amount of physical activity that may be necessary to control body weight may be >30 min/d. There is a growing body of scientific literature suggesting that at least 60 min of moderate-intensity physical activity may be necessary to maximize weight loss and prevent significant weight regain. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity appear to be important for the prevention of weight gain and the development of obesity. Physical activity also appears to have an independent effect on health-related outcomes when compared with body weight, suggesting that adequate levels of activity may counteract the negative influence of body weight on health outcomes. Thus, it is important to target intervention strategies to facilitate the adoption and maintenance of an adequate amount of physical activity to control body weight.
- SourceAvailable from: Ahmed J Romain[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exercise is recognized as a part of the management of obesity and diabetes. Various protocols of exercise are proposed for the management of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. One of the strategies proposed by several authors is low intensity endurance training targeted at the level of maximal oxidation. Large series using this technique are lacking. Addressing this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the studies on anthropometric measurements. From a database of 433 articles, 15 were selected, including 279 subjects with 6 different populations. Studies duration ranged from 2 months to 12 months. Concerning weight loss, in the intervention versus control analysis, five studies with 185 participants were included with a significant effect size favors exercise (P = 0.02) without significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.83). Further randomized controlled trials for comparing it with other exercise protocols and defining its dose effectiveness on large samples are needed.Journal of nutrition and metabolism 08/2012; 2012:285395. DOI:10.1155/2012/285395
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ABSTRACT: Over the last several years, new evidence has kept pouring in about the remarkable effect of caloric restriction (CR) on the conspicuous bedfellows- aging and cancer. Through the use of various animal models, it is now well established that by reducing calorie intake one can not only increase life span but, also, lower the risk of various age related diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells are believed to be more dependent on glycolysis for their energy requirements than normal cells and, therefore, can be easily targeted by alteration in the energy-metabolic pathways, a hallmark of CR. Apart from inhibiting the growth of transplantable tumors, CR has been also shown to inhibit the development of spontaneous, radiation, and chemically induced tumors. The question regarding the potentiality of the anti-tumor effect of CR in humans has been in part answered by the resistance of a cohort of women, who had suffered from anorexia in their early life, to breast cancer. However, human research on the beneficial effect of CR is still at an early stage and needs further validation. Though the complete mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of CR is far from clear, the plausible involvement of nutrient sensing pathways or IGF-1 pathways proposed for its anti-aging action cannot be overruled. In fact, cancer cell lines, mutant for proteins involved in IGF-1 pathways, failed to respond to CR. In addition, CR decreases the levels of many growth factors, anabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative markers that are deregulated in several cancers. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effect of CR, describing experiments done in vitro in tumor models and in vivo in mouse models in which the tumor was induced by means of radiation or chemical exposure, expressing oncogenes or deleting tumor suppression genes. We also discuss the proposed mechanisms of CR anti-tumor action. Lastly, we argue the necessity of gene expression studies in cancerous versus normal cells upon CR.Frontiers in Physiology 08/2012; 3:318. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00318 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Better methods are needed to improve validity and reliability of physical activity (PA) assessment instruments. The purpose of this study was to compare individual's Borg's Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scores to GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer output, with the aim to better understand estimates of perceived exertion for exercise prescription. Adults were recruited (n = 117) from Utah, with 43.1% males (n = 50), and most (53.1%) self-reporting regular exercise. Participants performed three indoor laps of increasing intensity, ranging from walking to running, and immediately completed a RPE form. A subsample was mailed the same RPE survey 6-8 weeks later to compare differences from their initial responses. Individual accelerometer data was compared to RPE levels from validated metabolic equivalents (METs). There were significant differences between the RPE ratings and the accelerometer output overall for gender (χ(2) = 10.9, P = 0.004), and exercise status (χ(2) = 15.5, P < 0.001). The odds of underestimating RPE for an exerciser were 3.67 times greater than a non-exerciser (95% CI = 1.48, 9.11). The subsample also underestimated RPE after the time lapse (Z = -2.324, P = 0.020). Overall, the RPE proved to be a useful tool for most individuals and could be used in individualised exercise prescription, although women may overestimate, and regular exercisers may underestimate exertion.Journal of Sports Sciences 12/2011; 29(15):1635-44. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2011.609898 · 2.10 Impact Factor