Slentz CA, Aiken LB, Houmard JA, et al. Inactivity, exercise, and visceral fat. STRRIDE: a randomized, controlled study of exercise intensity and amount

Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 11/2005; 99(4):1613-8. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00124.2005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite the importance of randomized, dose-response studies for proper evaluation of effective clinical interventions, there have been no dose-response studies on the effects of exercise amount on abdominal obesity, a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. One hundred seventy-five sedentary, overweight men and women with mild to moderate dyslipidemia were randomly assigned to participate for 6 mo in a control group or for approximately 8 mo in one of three exercise groups: 1) low amount, moderate intensity, equivalent to walking 12 miles/wk (19.2 km) at 40-55% of peak oxygen consumption; 2) low amount, vigorous intensity, equivalent to jogging 12 miles/wk at 65-80% of peak oxygen consumption; or 3) high amount, vigorous intensity, equivalent to jogging 20 miles/wk (32.0 km). Computed tomography scans were analyzed for abdominal fat. Controls gained visceral fat (8.6 +/- 17.2%; P = 0.001). The equivalent of 11 miles of exercise per week, at either intensity, prevented significant accumulation of visceral fat. The highest amount of exercise resulted in decreased visceral (-6.9 +/- 20.8%; P = 0.038) and subcutaneous (-7.0 +/- 10.8%; P < 0.001) abdominal fat. Significant gains in visceral fat over only 6 mo emphasize the high cost of continued inactivity. A modest exercise program, consistent with recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control/American College of Sports Medicine (CDC/ACSM), prevented significant increases in visceral fat. Importantly, a modest increase over the CDC/ACSM exercise recommendations resulted in significant decreases in visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat without changes in caloric intake.

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    • "Few studies have investigated the role of small amounts of exercise in preventing obesity (Kraus et al., 2001; Slentz et al., 2005). Since weight loss is difficult to maintain, weight gain prevention or prevention of obesity may be a useful strategy. "
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effectiveness of home-based exercise combined with a slight caloric restriction on weight change during 12 months in non-obese women. A randomized clinical trial with a factorial design was conducted from 2003 to 2005. Two hundred three middle-aged women (Rio de Janeiro/Brazil), 25-45 years, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (CG) and home-based exercise (HB). The HB group received a booklet on aerobic exercise that could be practiced at home (3 times/week-40 min/session), in low-moderate intensity, during 12 months. Both groups received dietary counseling aimed at a slight energy restriction of 100-300 calories per day. The HB experienced a greater weight loss in the first 6 months (-1.4 vs. -0.8 kg; p=0.04), but after 12 months there was no differences between groups (-1.1 vs. -1.0; p=0.20). Of the serum biochemical markers, HDL cholesterol showed major change, with an increase at month 12 of 18.3mg/dl in the HB compared to 9.5 in the CG (p<0.01). Home-based exercise promoted greater weight reduction during the first 6 months after which no further benefits are observed. Continuous favorable changes in HDL cholesterol after 1 year suggest that home-based exercise promote health benefits.
    Preventive Medicine 09/2010; 51(3-4):247-52. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.07.012 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Exercise significantly reduces percentage of body fat (Slentz et al. 2005), reduces the incidence of diabetes (Hamman et al. 2006), and improves cardiac performance (Blumenthal et al. 2005). Despite such clear health benefits, many people remain inactive. "
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise improves many aspects of human health, yet many people remain inactive even when exercise is prescribed. We previously created a backcross (BC) between mice selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (VWR) and fixed for "mini muscle" (MM), a recessive mutation causing approximately 50% reduction in triceps surae mass. We previously showed that BC mice having the MM trait ran faster and further than mice without MM and that MM maps to chromosome 11. Here, we genotyped the BC with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling voluntary exercise and tissue and body mass traits and to determine whether these QTL interact with the MM locus or with sex. We detected 3 VWR QTL, representing the first voluntary exercise QTL mapped using this high running selection line, and 5 tissue mass QTL. Several interactions between trait QTL and the MM locus as well as sex were also identified. These results begin to explain the genetic architecture of VWR and further support MM as a locus having major effects, including its main effects on the muscle phenotype, its pleiotropic effects on wheel running and tissue mass traits, and through its interactions with other QTL and with sex.
    The Journal of heredity 09/2009; 101(1):42-53. DOI:10.1093/jhered/esp066 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Physical activity has been shown to impact levels of visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat (Santeusanio, Di Loreto et al. 2003; Slentz, Aiken et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if a missense change at codon 64 of ADRB3 (Trp64Arg), a candidate obesity gene, is associated with obesity and levels of subcutaneous or visceral fat in African-American breast cancer cases. Several observational studies have found that women, who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis, as well as those who gain weight after diagnosis, are at greater risk for breast cancer recurrence and death than non-overweight women. Prospective cohort of breast cancer cases. 219 African-American breast cancer patients participating in the Los Angeles component of the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle Study. ADRB3 Trp64Arg genotype, measures of weight including body mass index (BMI), weight gain (weight 5 years before diagnosis compared with weight at 30 months after diagnosis), obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)), waist/hip circumference and visceral or subcutaneous fat were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. African-American women who were homozygous for the ADRB3 wild-type allele had significantly higher mean visceral fat levels than women who carried the variant (P=0.04), and were significantly more likely to be obese (odd ratios (OR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-4.2). The association with obesity was most pronounced among women who were premenopausal (OR=4.8, 95% CI=1.3-18), who received chemotherapy for their breast cancer (OR=6.1, 95% CI=1.8-20), or who were not physically active (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.5-9.7). The wild-type allele of the ADRB3 missense change was associated with measures of obesity in our sample of African-American women. The association was modified by menopausal status, history of chemotherapy and modest levels of physical activity. These results will need to be confirmed in an independent sample.
    International Journal of Obesity 07/2007; 31(7):1110-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803554 · 5.39 Impact Factor
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