The synthetic peptide Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met inhibits human monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation via formyl peptide receptor and formyl peptide receptor-like 2.
ABSTRACT Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met (WKYMVm) has been reported to stimulate monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs). However, although WKYMVm has been reported to function as a DC chemoattractant, its role on DC maturation has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of WKYMVm on human DC maturation. The costimulation of DCs with WKYMVm and LPS dramatically inhibited LPS-induced IL-12 production, CD86 and HLA-DR surface expression, and DC-mediated T cell proliferation. However, DC phagocytic activity was increased by WKYMVm stimulation. These findings demonstrate that WKYMVm inhibits DC maturation by LPS. In terms of the mechanism underlying DC maturation inhibition by WKYMVm, we found that LPS-induced DC maturation was negatively regulated by WKYMVm-stimulated ERK activity. Moreover, the costimulation of DCs with WKYMVm and LPS dramatically inhibited the LPS-induced accumulations of IL-12 mRNA, thus suggesting that WKYMVm inhibits LPS-induced IL-12 production at the transcriptional level. We also found that DCs express two WKYMVm receptors, formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and FPR-like 2 (FPRL2). In addition, formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (a FPR ligand), Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-Met, Hp(2-20) peptide, and F2L (three FPRL2 ligands) inhibited LPS-induced IL-12 production in DCs. Taken together, our findings indicate that the activations of FPR and FPRL2 inhibit LPS-induced DC maturation, and suggest that these two receptors should be regarded as important potential therapeutic targets for the modulation of DC maturation.
Article: Regulation by CRAMP of the responses of murine peritoneal macrophages to extracellular ATP.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from wild type (WT) mice and from mice invalidated for the P2X(7) receptor (KO) which had been pretreated with thioglycolate. In cells from WT mice, 1 mM ATP increased the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), the uptake of ethidium bromide, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the secretion of IL-1beta, the release of oleic acid and of lactate dehydrogenase; it decreased the intracellular concentration of potassium ([K(+)](i)). In KO mice, ATP transiently increased the [Ca(2+)](i) confirming that the P2X(7) receptor is a major receptor of peritoneal macrophages. WKYMVm, an agonist of receptors for formylated peptides (FPR) also increased the [Ca(2+)](i) in murine macrophages. The slight increase of the [Ca(2+)](i) was strongly potentiated by ivermectin confirming the expression of functional P2X(4) receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. CRAMP, the unique antimicrobial peptide derived from cathelin in mouse inhibited all the responses coupled to P2X(7) receptors in macrophages from WT mice. Agonists for FPR had no effect on the increase of the [Ca(2+)](i) in response to ATP. CRAMP had no effect on the increase of the [Ca(2+)](i) evoked by a combination of ATP and ivermectin in macrophages from P2X(7)-KO mice. In summary CRAMP inhibits the responses secondary to the activation of the murine P2X(7) receptors expressed by peritoneal macrophages. This inhibition is not mediated by FPR receptors and is specific since CRAMP has no effect on the response coupled to P2X(4) receptors. It can thus be concluded that the interaction between P2X(7) receptors and cathelin-derived antimicrobial peptides is species-specific, in some cases (man) positive in others (mouse) negative.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2009; 1798(3):569-78. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: Antimicrobial peptide hLF1-11 directs granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-driven monocyte differentiation toward macrophages with enhanced recognition and clearance of pathogens.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The human lactoferrin-derived peptide hLF1-11 displays antimicrobial activities in vitro and is effective against infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans in animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these activities remain largely unclear. Since hLF1-11 is ineffective in vitro at physiological salt concentrations, we suggested modulation of the immune system as an additional mechanism of action of the peptide. We investigated whether hLF1-11 affects human monocyte-macrophage differentiation and determined the antimicrobial activities of the resulting macrophages. Monocytes were cultured for 7 days with GM-CSF in the presence of hLF1-11, control peptide, or saline for various intervals. At day 6, the cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), or heat-killed C. albicans for 24 h. Thereafter, the levels of cytokines in the culture supernatants, the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, and the antimicrobial activities of these macrophages were determined. The results showed that a short exposure of monocytes to hLF1-11 during GM-CSF-driven differentiation is sufficient to direct differentiation of monocytes toward a macrophage subset characterized by both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production and increased responsiveness to microbial structures. Moreover, these macrophages are highly effective against C. albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, hLF1-11 directs GM-CSF-driven differentiation of monocytes toward macrophages with enhanced effector functions.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2009; 54(2):811-6. · 4.84 Impact Factor
Article: The human lactoferrin-derived peptide hLF1-11 primes monocytes for an enhanced TLR-mediated immune response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Earlier we reported that the peptide corresponding to the first eleven N-terminal amino acids of human lactoferrin (hLF1-11) is active against multi-drug resistant pathogens in mice. The mechanisms underlying this anti-infective activity remain unclear. Since hLF1-11 is ineffective against pathogens at physiological salt concentrations and hLF1-11 directs differentiation of monocytes toward a macrophage subset with enhanced effector functions, we investigated the effects of hLF1-11 on human and murine monocytes. Results revealed that human and murine monocytes exposed for 1 h to hLF1-11 and then stimulated with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligand LPS for 18 h, displayed enhanced cytokine and chemokine production as compared to control (peptide-treated) monocytes. We also found that expression of mRNA, cell-surface receptor expression, and NF-kappaB activation by hLF1-11-exposed human monocytes were enhanced as compared to control (peptide-treated) monocytes. Furthermore, the kinetics of the cytokine production was unchanged as mRNA levels and protein levels paralleled the enhanced response of hLF1-11-exposed monocytes to LPS. The cytokine production by human monocytes in response to TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 stimulation, but not to TLR2 stimulation, was elevated by hLF1-11. In concordance, translocation of NF-kappaB subunits to the nucleus was enhanced in hLF1-11-exposed monocytes after TLR stimulation, except for TLR2, as compared to control (peptide-exposed) monocytes. In conclusion, monocytes were primed by hLF1-11 for an enhanced inflammatory response upon TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 stimulation, but not TLR2 stimulation. Such effects of hLF1-11 on monocyte reactivity should be taken into account when considering the clinical development of this peptide for a therapeutic intervention in patients.Biology of Metals 03/2010; 23(3):493-505. · 3.17 Impact Factor