The continuing scourge of congenital syphilis in 21st century: a case report.
ABSTRACT Although the rate of congenital syphilis is declining in developed countries, a significant increase has been observed in the underdeveloped countries. Unfortunately, little concern is raised about the increasing numbers of babies born with congenital syphilis. The procedure to prevent congenital syphilis through antenatal screening and treatment is well established. But implementation of effective programs has proved very difficult especially in resource--poor settings. Congenital syphilis, if not treated promptly and adequately, may result in significant physical and emotional squeal in children. A case of complicated late congenital syphilis is reported in order to emphasize that syphilis is still present nowadays, and re-emerging many countries even some of the industrialized ones. Most of the cases can not be prevented by routine antenatal screening. Thus it is essential to develop strategies to prevent sexually transmitted disease from being a hidden and neglected problem.
- SourceAvailable from: Rainer W Bussmann[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common infectious diseases that pose major public health concerns in the world today. Although plants used in management of reproductive health in traditional communities play a major role in primary healthcare, they are often over looked in most ethnobotanical surveys. The study investigates various STDs and reproductive health conditions managed through ethnotherapeutic agents as well as the important herbal remedies utilized in Central Province of Kenya. Of 49 plant species belonging to 30 families used in managing various STDs and reproductive health conditions in the study area, 16 species were mentioned three or more times during the survey. Herbal agents used for the treatment of these conditions, especially the ones with high agreement on their use among respondents, form an important resource for antimicrobial screening against microorganisms associated with STDs especially those which have already developed resistant strains. Several species were used in managing pain associated with reproductive issues and may warrant investigations to authenticate their analgesic properties. It is now realized worldwide that sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common infectious diseases that pose major public health concerns. Although the incidence of bacterial STDs such as chancroid syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection, and trichomoniasis has declined, viral STDs such as herpes simplex, hepatitis B, and human T cell lymphotropic virus are on the increase especially in developing countries. Globally, there are over 25 sexually transmitted diseases, some of which have serious and permanent health problems when left untreated, while many favour the spread of HIV infection 1 . Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is of major concern because it increases the transmission of HIV and is a major marker of risk for the development of more serious STDs 2 . Proper management of STDs therefore forms an important strategy for reducing risk of HIV infection 3,4 . HIV infection on the other hand may affect the course, severity, resistance to therapy and prognosis of STDs especially syphilis, genital warts, and herpes 5 . Some bacteria responsible for STDs include Treponema pallidum, which is responsible for syphilis, whose global prevalence is estimated at 12 million, with high prevalence rates in South and Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Syphilis is not only transmitted by sexual contact but also through neonatal means, and congenital syphilis is on the increase in developing countries 6 . The gram negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae on the other hand causes gonorrhoea, whose prevalence rate is estimated at 62.4 million globally. Studies reveal that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial STD particularly among the young. Untreated gonococcal infections, as well as chlamydial infections are known to cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), chronic pelvic pain, subfertility and ectopic pregnancy among other complications 1,2 . Genital herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) establishes a lifelong infection that in some patients is associated with significant morbidity 7 . It is sometimes associated with complications such as meningitis, hepatitis, erythema multiforme, and neonatal herpes. Infection with HSV-2 is now one of the most common STDs worldwide and is the most frequent cause of genital ulcers in almost all areas 8 . Other viruses involved in STDs include Human papiloma virus (HPV), Poxvirus and RNA viruses such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 9,10 . Fungal STDs suchIndian journal of traditional knowledge 05/2009; 8:255-261. · 0.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Congenital syphilis is the oldest recognized congenital infection and still represents a serious healthcare problem in the 21st century. It is important to be fully informed regarding the early diagnosis and treatment of congenital syphilis to prevent its devastating complications leading to death. In this manuscript, we report a newborn infant with unusual clinical findings of congenital syphilis such as a non-fluctuant mass surrounding the left calf. She did not have any additional system involvement such as hepatic or skin involvement or lymph nodes. To our best knowledge, there are only a few case reports presented with isolated bone involvement. This case demonstrates that congenital syphilis should be considered in neonates with bone fractures, lytic bone lesions and periostitis.The Turkish journal of pediatrics 51(2):169-71. · 0.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In spite of availability of cost-effective preventive measures and treatment, a resurgence of congenital syphilis has currently been noted. During the past 4 years, we came across five low birth weight neonates with unusual symptoms, which subsequently proved to be manifestations of early congenital syphilis. All the mothers had apparently uneventful antenatal period. No investigation was done during pregnancy. They were unaware about their disease and were found to be positive for syphilis by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test and fluorescent treponemal antibody (absorbed) IgM test only after childbirth. Screening for other congenital infections was negative. All the neonates were positive for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test. They were treated with intravenous crystalline penicillin G for 10 days. Recovery was uneventful. We reemphasize the importance of raising public awareness, routine antenatal screening and treatment for all pregnant mothers to avoid such a potentially treatable condition.Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 01/2013; · 1.01 Impact Factor