Socioeconomic position and self-rated health: the contribution of childhood socioeconomic circumstances, adult socioeconomic status, and material resources.
ABSTRACT We examined socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health by analyzing indicators of childhood socioeconomic circumstances, adult socioeconomic position, and current material resources.
We collected data on middle-aged adults employed by the City of Helsinki (n=8970; 67% response rate). Associations between 7 socioeconomic indicators and health self-ratings of less than "good" were examined with sequential logistic regression models.
After adjustment for age, each socioeconomic indicator was inversely associated with self-rated health. Childhood economic difficulties, but not parental education, were associated with health independently of all other socioeconomic indicators. The associations of respondents' own education and occupational class with health remained when adjusted for other socioeconomic indicators. Home ownership and economic difficulties, but not household income, were the material indicators associated with health after full adjustment.
Own education and occupational class showed consistent associations with health, but the association with income disappeared after adjustment for other socioeconomic indicators. The effect of parental education on health was mediated by the respondent's own education. Both childhood and adulthood economic difficulties showed clear associations with health and with conventional socioeconomic indicators.
Article: Income, occupational position, qualification and health inequalities--competing risks? (comparing indicators of social status).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The debate on health inequalities has shifted from the consequences of occupational position, as expressed in the Registrar General's classification, to consequences of material living conditions. This change in interest occurred without comparative analyses of different sources of health inequalities. Thus this study investigated the relative contribution of "material resources" (income), "qualification" and "occupational position" for explaining social differentials in mortality. Analyses were performed with records from a statutory health insurance in West Germany. The analyses were performed with data of 84,814 employed men and women between 25 and 65 years of age who were insured between 1987 and 1995 for at least 150 days. The three indicators were statistically associated, but not strong enough to warrant the conclusion that they share the same empirical content. The relative risk (hazard rate) for income by controlling for occupational position and gender for the highest as compared with the lowest category was 1.99 (95% CI 1.66, 2.39). The corresponding relative risk for income by controlling for qualification and gender was 2.03 (95% CI 1.68, 2.46). In both multivariate analyses, the effects of occupational position and qualification were no longer interpretable because of large confidence intervals. In sum, income related relative mortality risks were the comparably highest, while qualification and occupational position were no longer substantial. The results emphasise the present discussion on the consequences of material living conditions. Income on the one hand and qualification and occupational position on the other are largely independent. Mortality related effects of income override those of the other socioeconomic status indicators. However, seen in a time perspective, qualification may still have a placement function at least for the first occupational position.Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 05/2000; 54(4):299-305. · 3.19 Impact Factor
Article: Influence of renal function on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the antiarrhythmic propafenone and its phase I and phase II metabolites.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the disposition of propafenone and its Phase I and II metabolites in relation to kidney function under steady-state conditions. The mechanism of the renal handling of propafenone glucuronides (filtration, secretion) was also examined. Racemic (R/S) propafenone was administered to 7 young volunteers, to 5 older patients with a normal glomerular filtration rate and to 4 patients with chronic renal failure. No difference was found in the plasma concentrations of propafenone and 5-hydroxypropafenone between the three groups. The propafenone glucuronide (PPFG) concentration was elevated in the older compared to the younger subjects (S-PPFG: 544 vs. 222 nmol.ml-1.mol-1; R-PPFG: 576 vs. 304 nmol.ml-1.mol-1). Although Glomerular filtration rate did not differ, the renal clearance of propafenone glucuronides was reduced in the former group, which could be attributed to their impaired renal secretion. A dramatic increase in propafenone glucuronide concentration was observed in the patients with renal failure (S-PPFG: 2783 nmol.ml-1.mol-1; R-PPFG: 7340 nmol.ml-1.mol-1). In summary, the disposition of propafenone and of its active metabolite 5-hydroxypropafenone was not affected by kidney dysfunction, indicating that no dose adjustment is necessary in patients with renal failure. The accumulation of drug glucuronides in older patients with apparently normal kidney function should be taken into account as a possible factor modifying drug therapy.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/1995; 48(3-4):279-83. · 2.85 Impact Factor