Environmental reduplicative paramnesia in a case of atypical Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT A 79-year-old patient with neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) presented with a selective environmental reduplicative paramnesia (RP), the belief that one or more environments exist simultaneously in two or more physical locations. Clinical presentation and neuropathological examination revealed an atypical form of AD. High neurofibrillary tangle densities were observed in the frontal and temporal association cortex, whereas the parietal and entorhinal cortex, as well as the hippocampus, were nearly spared. These findings are compared to those reported in frontal and frontotemporal variants of AD and discussed in the light of current anatomoclinical models for environmental RP.
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ABSTRACT: Environmental reduplicative paramnesia (ERP) is characterized by the involuntary attribution of a false identity to a place. ERP has rarely been examined experimentally; its mechanisms therefore remain speculative. Here, we describe a patient with extended traumatic right fronto-temporal damage and severe persistent ERP, in whom we were able to modulate ERP by exposing him to various typical landmarks of the town where he was hospitalized. When landmarks were ambiguous as regards location (e.g., unknown buildings), the patient erroneously localized himself in his hometown, which was more than two thousand kilometers away. In contrast, when he visited distinct landmarks of the place where he actually resided, his ERP was immediately corrected, and spatial orientation was restored. These findings indicate that ERP may be temporarily modifiable through perception of unequivocal topographic information.Neurocase 08/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical experience suggests that longstanding personality characteristics as a person's most distinctive features of all are likely to play a role in how someone with dementia copes with his increasing deficiencies. Personality characteristics may have a pathoplastic effect on both behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) or on cognition as well as cognitive decline. Cognitive disorders accompanied by BPS are a tremendous burden for both the patient and their proxies. This review suggests that premorbid personality characteristics are co-determinants of BPS in cognitive disorders, but much effort is needed to clarify whether or not specific premorbid personality traits are associated with specific BPS as no strong links have so far emerged. This review further shows that a growing field of research is interested in the links not only between quite short-lived emotional states and cognitive processes, but also between longstanding personality traits and cognition in both healthy individuals and patients with neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, a few studies found that specific premorbid personality traits may be risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. However, research findings in this area remain scarce despite a huge literature on personality and cognitive disorders in general. An important shortcoming that hampers so far the progress of our understanding in these domains is the confusion in the literature between longstanding premorbid personality traits and transient personality changes observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Few studies have based their assessments on accepted personality theories and carefully investigated premorbid personality traits in patients with cognitive disorders, although assessing personality may be complicated in these patients. Studying the impact of personality characteristics in cognitive disorders is an especially promising field of research in particular when concomitantly using neurobiological approaches, in particular structural brain imaging and genetic studies as suggested by as yet rare studies. Improved understanding of premorbid personality characteristics as determinants of both BPS or cognitive capacities or decline is likely to influence our attitudes towards the treatment of demented patients and ultimately to help in alleviating a patient's and their proxies' burden.Brain research bulletin 08/2009; 80(4-5):179-91. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report on the fabrication of optical Bragg type phase gratings in polymethyl methacrylate substrates by a femptosecond Ti: Sapphire laser. As for their optical characterization, a spatially resolved microscopy interferometric technique is used to investigate the two-dimensional distribution of the refractive index change produced by the irradiation process. The technique gives a direct and quantitative two-dimensional profile of the index of refraction in irradiated PMMA, providing information on how the fabrication process depends on the laser irradiation.Optics Communications 04/2011; 284(12). · 1.54 Impact Factor