Tooth enamel defects in mice with a deletion at the Arhgap 6/Amel X locus.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
Calcified Tissue International (Impact Factor: 2.75). 08/2005; 77(1):23-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00223-004-1213-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The amelogenin proteins regulate enamel mineral formation in the developing tooth. The human AMELX gene, which encodes the amelogenin proteins, is located within an intron of the Arhgap 6 gene. ARHGAP 6 encodes a Rho GAP, which regulates activity of Rho A, a small G protein involved in intracellular signal transduction. Mice were generated in which the entire ARHGAP 6 gene was deleted by Cre-mediated recombination, which also removed the nested Amel X gene. Enamel from these mice appeared chalky white, and the molars showed excessive wear. The enamel layer was hypoplastic and non-prismatic, whereas other dental tissues had normal morphology. This phenotype is similar to that reported for Amel X null mice, which have a short deletion that removed the region surrounding the translation initiation site, and resembles some forms of X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta in humans. Analysis of the enamel from the Arhgap 6/Amel X-deleted mice verifies that the Amel X gene is nested within the murine Arhgap 6 gene and shows that removal of the entire Amel X gene leads to a phenotype similar to the earlier Amel X null mouse results, in which no amelogenin protein was detected. However, an unusual layer of aprismatic enamel covers the enamel surface, which may be related to the 1.1-Mb deletion, which included Arhgap 6 in these mice.

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