Tooth enamel defects in mice with a deletion at the Arhgap 6/Amel X locus.
ABSTRACT The amelogenin proteins regulate enamel mineral formation in the developing tooth. The human AMELX gene, which encodes the amelogenin proteins, is located within an intron of the Arhgap 6 gene. ARHGAP 6 encodes a Rho GAP, which regulates activity of Rho A, a small G protein involved in intracellular signal transduction. Mice were generated in which the entire ARHGAP 6 gene was deleted by Cre-mediated recombination, which also removed the nested Amel X gene. Enamel from these mice appeared chalky white, and the molars showed excessive wear. The enamel layer was hypoplastic and non-prismatic, whereas other dental tissues had normal morphology. This phenotype is similar to that reported for Amel X null mice, which have a short deletion that removed the region surrounding the translation initiation site, and resembles some forms of X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta in humans. Analysis of the enamel from the Arhgap 6/Amel X-deleted mice verifies that the Amel X gene is nested within the murine Arhgap 6 gene and shows that removal of the entire Amel X gene leads to a phenotype similar to the earlier Amel X null mouse results, in which no amelogenin protein was detected. However, an unusual layer of aprismatic enamel covers the enamel surface, which may be related to the 1.1-Mb deletion, which included Arhgap 6 in these mice.
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ABSTRACT: A primary goal of enamel research is to understand and potentially treat or prevent enamel defects related to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Rodents are ideal models to assist our understanding of how enamel is formed because they are easily genetically modified, and their continuously erupting incisors display all stages of enamel development and mineralization. While numerous methods have been developed to generate and analyze genetically modified rodent enamel, it is crucial to understand the limitations and challenges associated with these methods in order to draw appropriate conclusions that can be applied translationally, to AI patient care. We have highlighted methods involved in generating and analyzing rodent enamel and potential approaches to overcoming limitations of these methods: (1) generating transgenic, knockout, and knockin mouse models, and (2) analyzing rodent enamel mineral density and functional properties (structure and mechanics) of mature enamel. There is a need for a standardized workflow to analyze enamel phenotypes in rodent models so that investigators can compare data from different studies. These methods include analyses of gene and protein expression, developing enamel histology, enamel pigment, degree of mineralization, enamel structure, and mechanical properties. Standardization of these methods with regard to stage of enamel development and sample preparation is crucial, and ideally investigators can use correlative and complementary techniques with the understanding that developing mouse enamel is dynamic and complex.Frontiers in Physiology 09/2014; 5:313.
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ABSTRACT: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of inherited conditions featuring isolated enamel malformations. About 5% of AI cases show an X-linked pattern of inheritance, which are caused by mutations in AMELX. In humans there are two, non-allelic amelogenin genes: AMELX (Xp22.3) and AMELY (Yp11.2). About 90% of amelogenin expression is from AMELX, which is nested within intron 1 of the gene encoding Rho GTPase activating protein 6 (ARHGAP6). We recruited two AI families and determined that their disease-causing mutations were partial deletions in ARHGAP6 that completely deleted AMELX. Affected males in both families had a distinctive enamel phenotype resembling "snow-capped" teeth. The 96,240 bp deletion in family 1 was confined to intron 1 of ARHGAP6 (g.302534_398773del96240), but removed alternative ARHGAP6 promoters 1c and 1d. Analyses of developing teeth in mice showed that ARHGAP6 is not expressed from these promoters in ameloblasts. The 52,654 bp deletion in family 2 (g.363924_416577del52654insA) removed ARHGAP6 promoter 1d and exon 2, precluding normal expression of ARHGAP6. The male proband of family 2 had slightly thinner enamel with greater surface roughness, but exhibited the same pattern of enamel malformations characteristic of males in family 1, which themselves showed minor variations in their enamel phenotypes. We conclude that the enamel defects in both families were caused by amelogenin insufficiency, that deletion of AMELX results in males with a characteristic snow-capped enamel phenotype, and failed ARHGAP6 expression did not appreciably alter the severity of enamel defects when AMELX was absent.PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e52052. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emdogain (enamel matrix derivative, EMD) is well recognized in periodontology. It is used in periodontal surgery to regenerate cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying periodontal regeneration are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the proteins bound to amelogenin, which are suggested to play a pivotal role in promoting periodontal tissue regeneration. To identify new molecules that interact with amelogenin and are involved in osteoblast activation, we employed coupling affinity chromatography with proteomic analysis in fractionated SaOS-2 osteoblastic cell lysate. In SaOS-2 cells, many of the amelogenin-interacting proteins in the cytoplasm were mainly cytoskeletal proteins and several chaperone molecules of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family. On the other hand, the proteomic profiles of amelogenin-interacting proteins in the membrane fraction of the cell extracts were quite different from those of the cytosolic-fraction. They were mainly endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated proteins, with lesser quantities of mitochondrial proteins and nucleoprotein. Among the identified amelogenin-interacting proteins, we validated the biological interaction of amelogenin with glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78/Bip), which was identified in both cytosolic and membrane-enriched fractions. Confocal co-localization experiment strongly suggested that Grp78/Bip could be an amelogenin receptor candidate. Further biological evaluations were examined by Grp78/Bip knockdown analysis with and without amelogenin. Within the limits of the present study, the interaction of amelogenin with Grp78/Bip contributed to cell proliferation, rather than correlate with the osteogenic differentiation in SaOS-2 cells. Although the biological significance of other interactions are not yet explored, these findings suggest that the differential effects of amelogenin-derived osteoblast activation could be of potential clinical significance for understanding the cellular and molecular bases of amelogenin-induced periodontal tissue regeneration.PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78129. · 3.53 Impact Factor