HIF-1alpha expression regulates the bactericidal capacity of phagocytes.

Division of Biological Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.77). 08/2005; 115(7):1806-15. DOI: 10.1172/JCI23865
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of the tissue microenvironment during bacterial infection. Here we report on our use of conditional gene targeting to examine the contribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF-1alpha) to myeloid cell innate immune function. HIF-1alpha was induced by bacterial infection, even under normoxia, and regulated the production of key immune effector molecules, including granule proteases, antimicrobial peptides, nitric oxide, and TNF-alpha. Mice lacking HIF-1alpha in their myeloid cell lineage showed decreased bactericidal activity and failed to restrict systemic spread of infection from an initial tissue focus. Conversely, activation of the HIF-1alpha pathway through deletion of von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor protein or pharmacologic inducers supported myeloid cell production of defense factors and improved bactericidal capacity. HIF-1alpha control of myeloid cell activity in infected tissues could represent a novel therapeutic target for enhancing host defense.

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    ABSTRACT: Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are critical front line contributors to host defense against invasive bacterial infection. These immune factors have direct killing activity toward microbes, but many pathogens are able to resist their effects. Group A Streptococcus, group B Streptococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are among the most common pathogens of humans and display a variety of phenotypic adaptations to resist CAMPs. Common themes of CAMP resistance mechanisms among the pathogenic streptococci are repulsion, sequestration, export, and destruction. Each pathogen has a different array of CAMP-resistant mechanisms, with invasive disease potential reflecting the utilization of several mechanisms that may act in synergy. Here we discuss recent progress in identifying the sources of CAMP resistance in the medically important Streptococcus genus. Further study of these mechanisms can contribute to our understanding of streptococcal pathogenesis, and may provide new therapeutic targets for therapy and disease prevention. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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    ABSTRACT: In this mini-review, we will discuss recent findings that implicate neutrophil infiltration and function in establishing a metabolic environment to facilitate efficient pathogen clearance. For decades, neutrophils have been regarded as short lived, nonspecific granulocytes, equipped with toxic antimicrobial factors and a respiratory burst generating ROS. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of HIF signaling in leukocytes and surrounding tissues during inflammation. Here, we will review the potential mechanisms and outcomes of HIF stabilization within the intestinal mucosa. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

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