Formation of organelle-like N2-fixing symbiosomes in legume root nodules is controlled by DMI2.
ABSTRACT In most legume nodules, the N2-fixing rhizobia are present as organelle-like structures inside their host cells. These structures, named symbiosomes, contain one or a few rhizobia surrounded by a plant membrane. Symbiosome formation requires the release of bacteria from cell-wall-bound infection threads. In primitive legumes, rhizobia are hosted in intracellular infection threads that, in contrast to symbiosomes, are bound by a cell wall. The formation of symbiosomes is presumed to represent a major step in the evolution of legume-nodule symbiosis, because symbiosomes facilitate the exchange of metabolites between the two symbionts. Here, we show that the genes, which are essential for initiating nodule formation, are also actively transcribed in mature Medicago truncatula nodules in the region where symbiosome formation occurs. At least one of these genes, encoding the receptor kinase DOES NOT MAKE INFECTIONS 2 (DMI2) is essential for symbiosome formation. The protein locates to the host cell plasma membrane and to the membrane surrounding the infection threads. A partial reduction of DMI2 expression causes a phenotype that resembles the infection structures found in primitive legume nodules, because infected cells are occupied by large intracellular infection threads instead of by organelle-like symbiosomes.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Erik Limpens, Jun 19, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Medicago truncatula belongs to the legume family and forms symbiotic associations with nitrogen fixing bacteria, the rhizobia. During these interactions, the plants develop root nodules in which bacteria invade the plant cells and fix nitrogen for the benefit of the plant. Despite massive infection, legume nodules do not develop visible defence reactions, suggesting a special immune status of these organs. Some factors influencing rhizobium maintenance within the plant cells have been previously identified, such as the M. truncatula NCR peptides whose toxic effects are reduced by the bacterial protein BacA. In addition, DNF2, SymCRK, and RSD are M. truncatula genes required to avoid rhizobial death within the symbiotic cells. DNF2 and SymCRK are essential to prevent defence-like reactions in nodules after bacteria internalization into the symbiotic cells. Herein, we used a combination of genetics, histology and molecular biology approaches to investigate the relationship between the factors preventing bacterial death in the nodule cells. We show that the RSD gene is also required to repress plant defences in nodules. Upon inoculation with the bacA mutant, defence responses are observed only in the dnf2 mutant and not in the symCRK and rsd mutants. In addition, our data suggest that lack of nitrogen fixation by the bacterial partner triggers bacterial death in nodule cells after bacteroid differentiation. Together our data indicate that, after internalization, at least four independent mechanisms prevent bacterial death in the plant cell. These mechanisms involve successively: DNF2, BacA, SymCRK/RSD and bacterial ability to fix nitrogen. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.Journal of Experimental Botany 02/2015; 66(7). DOI:10.1093/jxb/eru545 · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM), rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS) and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that “first” rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single “evolutionary plant-microbial continuum”. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.03/2014; 48(2):291-304. DOI:10.5937/ratpov1102291S
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ABSTRACT: Symbiosis between legume plants and soil rhizobia culminates in the formation of a novel root organ, the 'nodule', containing bacteria differentiated as facultative nitrogen-fixing organelles. MtNF-YA1 is a Medicago truncatula CCAAT box-binding transcription factor (TF), formerly called HAP2-1, highly expressed in mature nodules and required for nodule meristem function and persistence. Here a role for MtNF-YA1 during early nodule development is demonstrated. Detailed expression analysis based on RNA sequencing, quantitiative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), as well as promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusions reveal that MtNF-YA1 is first induced at the onset of symbiotic development during preparation for, and initiation and progression of, symbiotic infection. Moreover, using a new knock-out mutant, Mtnf-ya1-1, it is shown that MtNF-YA1 controls infection thread (IT) progression from initial root infection through colonization of nodule tissues. Extensive confocal and electronic microscopic observations suggest that the bulbous and erratic IT growth phenotypes observed in Mtnf-ya1-1 could be a consequence of the fact that walls of ITs in this mutant are thinner and less coherent than in the wild type. It is proposed that MtNF-YA1 controls rhizobial infection progression by regulating the formation and the wall of ITs.Journal of Experimental Botany 12/2013; 65(2). DOI:10.1093/jxb/ert392 · 5.79 Impact Factor