A report of three patients with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 15q24
ABSTRACT Partial monosomy of the q2 region of chromosome 15 has been infrequently reported. Moreover, interstitial deletions involving 15q22-q24 have been described in only nine patients to date. The phenotype of these reported individuals is subject to the extent of the deletion but typically includes altered muscle tone and significant developmental delays. In addition, eye abnormalities, such as strabismus, microphthalmia, or colobomas, ear abnormalities including cleft earlobe and preauricular tags, and urogenital defects are common features. Congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, abnormalities of the central nervous system, and skeletal anomalies have been reported but appear to be less frequent clinical manifestations. In this report, we describe three new patients with interstitial deletions involving 15q24, two with cryptic deletions identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a probe for the PML gene and one with a cytogenetically visible deletion of 15q22.3-q24. The clinical presentation of these individuals is similar to those previously described and includes global developmental delays, hypotonia, and genital abnormalities in the males. The identification of these three cases demonstrates that the above clinical features are associated with a new cytogenetic deletion syndrome. Furthermore, we suggest that FISH analysis with a probe for the PML gene be performed in patients with these physical findings.
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ABSTRACT: Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genomic disorder characterised by intellectual disability, growth retardation, unusual facial morphology and other anomalies. To date, 20 patients have been reported; 18 have had detailed breakpoint analysis. To further delineate the features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, the clinical and molecular characterisation of fifteen patients with deletions in the 15q24 region was performed, nearly doubling the number of reported patients. Breakpoints were characterised using a custom, high-density array comparative hybridisation platform, and detailed phenotype information was collected for each patient. Nine distinct deletions with different breakpoints ranging in size from 266 kb to 3.75 Mb were identified. The majority of breakpoints lie within segmental duplication (SD) blocks. Low sequence identity and large intervals of unique sequence between SD blocks likely contribute to the rarity of 15q24 deletions, which occur 8-10 times less frequently than 1q21 or 15q13 microdeletions in our series. Two small, atypical deletions were identified within the region that help delineate the critical region for the core phenotype in the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome. The molecular characterisation of these patients suggests that the core cognitive features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, including developmental delays and severe speech problems, are largely due to deletion of genes in a 1.1-Mb critical region. However, genes just distal to the critical region also play an important role in cognition and in the development of characteristic facial features associated with 15q24 deletions. Clearly, deletions in the 15q24 region are variable in size and extent. Knowledge of the breakpoints and size of deletion combined with the natural history and medical problems of our patients provide insights that will inform management guidelines. Based on common phenotypic features, all patients with 15q24 microdeletions should receive a thorough neurodevelopmental evaluation, physical, occupational and speech therapies, and regular audiologic and ophthalmologic screening.Journal of Medical Genetics 12/2011; 49(2):110-8. DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100499 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 15q24 deletion syndrome is a recently-described chromosomal disorder, characterized by developmental delay, growth deficiency, distinct facial features, digital abnormalities, loose connective tissue, and genital malformations in males. To date, 19 patients have been reported. We report on a 13-year-old boy with this syndrome manifesting childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). He had characteristic facial features, hypospadias, and mild developmental delay. He showed neutropenia and thrombocytopenia for several years. At age 13 years, bone marrow examination was performed, which showed a sign suggestive of childhood MDS: mild dysplasia in the myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic cell lineages. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) revealed a de novo 3.4 Mb 15q24.1q24.3 deletion. Although MDS has not been described in patients with the syndrome, a boy was reported to have acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The development of MDS and hematological malignancy in the syndrome might be caused by the haploinsufficiency of deleted 15q24 segment either alone or in combination with other genetic abnormalities in hematopoietic cells. Further hematological investigation is recommended to be beneficial if physical and hematological examination results are suggestive of hematopoietic disturbance in patients with the syndrome.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 02/2012; 158A(2):412-6. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.34395 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Study Design To test for rare genetic mutations, a cohort of patients with unexplained early-onset scoliosis (EOS) was screened using high-density microarray genotyping. A cohort of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was similarly screened and the results were compared. Summary of Background Data Patients with scoliosis in infancy or early childhood (EOS) are at high risk for progressive deformity and associated problems including respiratory compromise. Early-onset scoliosis is frequently associated with genetic disorders but many patients present with nonspecific clinical features and without an associated diagnosis. The authors hypothesized that EOS in these patients may be caused by rare genetic mutations detectable by next-generation genomic methods. Methods The researchers identified 24 patients with unexplained EOS from pediatric orthopedic clinics. They genotyped them, along with 39 connecting family members, using the Illumina OmniExpress-12, version 1.0 beadchip. Resulting genotypes were analyzed for chromosomal changes, specifically copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity. They screened 482 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and 744 healthy controls, who were similarly genotyped with the same beadchip, for chromosomal changes identified in the EOS cohort. Results Copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity analyses revealed a genetic diagnosis of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome in 1 patient and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a second one. Prior genetic testing and clinical evaluations had been negative in both cases. A large novel chromosome 10 deletion was likely causal in a third EOS patient. These mutations identified in the EOS patients were absent in AIS patients and controls, and thus were not associated with AIS or found in asymptomatic individuals. Conclusions These data underscore the usefulness of updated genetic evaluations including high-density microarray-based genotyping and other next-generation methods in patients with unexplained EOS, even when prior genetic studies were negative. These data also suggest the intriguing possibility that other mutations detectable by whole genome sequencing, as well as epigenetic effects, await discovery in the EOS population.09/2014; 2(5):324–332. DOI:10.1016/j.jspd.2014.04.014