Characteristics of candidaemia with Candida-albicans compared with non-albicans Candida species and predictors of mortality.
ABSTRACT Candidaemia due to non-albicans Candida species is increasing in frequency. We describe 272 episodes of candidaemia, define parameters associated with Candida albicans and other Candida species, and analyse predictors associated with mortality. Patients with C. albicans (55%) had the highest fatality rate and frequently received immunosuppressive therapy, while patients with Candida parapsilosis (16%) had the lowest fatality and complication rates. Candida tropicalis (16%) was associated with youth, severe neutropenia, acute leukaemia or bone marrow transplantation, Candida glabrata (10%) was associated with old age and chronic disease, and Candida krusei (2%) was associated with prior fluconazole therapy. The overall fatality rate was 36%, and predictors of death by multi-variate analysis were shock, impaired performance status, low serum albumin and congestive heart failure. Isolation of non-albicans Candida species, prior surgery and catheter removal were protective factors. When shock was excluded from analysis, antifungal therapy was shown to be protective. Unlike previous concerns, infection with Candida species other than C. albicans has not been shown to result in an increased fatality rate.
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ABSTRACT: Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations, for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'.Revista iberoamericana de micologia. 06/2013;
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fungal infection at an arthroplasty site is rare and poses a therapeutic challenge. To the best of our knowledge, no reports have been published thus far on the success rate of prosthesis reimplantation after fungal prosthetic joint infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked: (1) What is the success rate in terms of infection eradication using a two-stage exchange arthroplasty in patients with hip or knee fungal periprosthetic joint infections, particularly focusing on Candida infections? (2) What patient-, infection-, and treatment-related variables are associated with the success or failure of treatment? METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2010, 16 patients with hip or knee candidal periprosthetic joint infections were treated with two-stage exchange arthroplasty at our institute. Treatment success was defined as a well-functioning joint without relapse of candidal infection after prosthesis reimplantation, while treatment failure was defined as uncontrolled or relapse of candidal infection or mortality. Variables, including age, sex, comorbidities, microbiology, antimicrobial agents used, and operative methods, were analyzed. Minimum followup was 28 months (mean, 41 months; range, 28-90 months). RESULTS: At latest followup, the treatment failed to eradicate the infection in eight of the 16 patients, and there were four deaths related to fungemia. Four patients required permanent resection arthroplasty owing to uncontrolled or recurrent candidal infections. All eight patients (50% successful rate) who had their infections eradicated and successful prosthesis reimplantation had prolonged treatment with oral fluconazole before (mean, 8 months) and after (mean, 2.2 months) prosthesis reimplantation. The antifungal therapy correlated with successful treatment. Renal insufficiency, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly more prevalent in the treatment-failure group than in the treatment-success group. CONCLUSIONS: Half of the patients treated with two-stage exchange arthroplasty for fungal periprosthetic joint infections had recurrence or lack of control of the infection. A prolonged antifungal therapy appeared to be essential for successful treatment of candidal periprosthetic joint infections. The presence of renal insufficiency, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might be associated with a poor outcome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 04/2013; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several guidelines have been published on the management of candidaemia. These guidelines vary in their recommendations, and the lack of consistency between the guidelines has implications for the management of candidaemia. We critiqued five guidelines, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Guidelines for the Management of Candidiasis, the Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Invasive Candidiasis in Adults, the Joint Recommendations of the German Speaking Mycological Society and the Paul-Ehrlich-Society for Chemotherapy, the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Candida Diseases, and the Brazilian Guidelines for the Management of Candidiasis. The recommendations in these guidelines vary in all major areas of management, including choice of initial therapy, species-specific therapy (Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis), transition to oral therapy (3 days as per IDSA but 10 days as per ESCMID), catheter removal and specialty referrals. We found that too much emphasis has been placed on themes such as predicting the infecting species (and therefore fluconazole susceptibility) or the need for investigations such as echocardiography. We also stress that guidelines fail to provide adequate information (due to lack of evidence) on the most relevant issues that clinicians face when managing candidaemia, such as the place for fluconazole in the treatment of C. glabrata, the clinical relevance of dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole, and the timing of step-down therapy.International journal of antimicrobial agents 09/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor