Article

Shigella flexneri is dependent on villin in the mouse intestine and in primary cultures of intestinal epithelial cells

Institut Curie UMR 144, 75248 Paris cedex 05, France.
Cellular Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.82). 09/2005; 7(8):1109-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2005.00535.x
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ABSTRACT Villin is an actin-binding protein present in intestinal and kidney brush borders. Villin has been shown to present in vitro Ca(2+)-dependent bundling and severing F-actin properties. The study of villin knock-out mice allowed us to show that while bundling of F-actin microfilaments is unaffected, this protein is important for the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton elicited by various signals during both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we studied the role of villin during infection by Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery. This bacterium induces the reorganization of the host actin cytoskeleton to penetrate into epithelial cells and spread from cell to cell. In vivo, we show that unlike newborn vil+/+ mice, which are sensitive to Shigella invasion, resulting in a destructive inflammatory response of the intestinal mucosa following intragastric inoculation, newborn vil-/- mice appear fully resistant to infection. Using primary cultures of intestinal epithelial cells derived from vil+/+ or vil -/- mice, we demonstrate that villin plays an essential role in S. flexneri entry and cell-to-cell dissemination. Villin expression is thus critical for Shigella infection through its ability to remodel the actin cytoskeleton.

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    • "Primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells were prepared and cultured as described previously [16]. The cells were cultured in 6-well plates for 48 h and washed three times with PBS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100264. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100264 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Villin is an actin regulatory protein that is localised in all the intestinal epithelial cells and gastrointestinal tract-associated exocrine glands [12, 13]. Villin regulates intestinal epithelial cell morphology, actin reorganisation, and cell motility [14, 15]. Villin expression in malignant tumour was described first by Moll et al. [9] and Bacchi and Gown [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims. Villin is a highly specialised protein and is expressed in intestinal and renal proximal tubular epithelium. It was detected in colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and other nongastrointestinal tumours. The aim of the current study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of villin in a subset of primary CRC and determine its relation to tumour differentiation, invasion, nodal metastasis, recurrence, and disease-free survival. Patients and Methods. Paraffin blocks of 93 cases of CRC were retrieved constituting 93 primary CRC and 58 adjacent normal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antivillin antibody. The extent (%) of villin immunoexpression was categorised for statistical analysis. Statistical tests were used to determine the association of villin with clinicopathological characteristics: age, sex, tumour location, tumour size, depth of invasion, tumour grade, nodal metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, margin status, recurrence, and survival. Results. Villin immunostaining results showed that villin is downregulated in CRC. Villin has no association with age, sex, tumour location, depth of invasion, nodal metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, margin status, and recurrence. However, villin is expressed in higher rate in CRC less than 5 cm, well- and moderately differentiated CRC. Poor survival was associated with tumour with low villin immunoexpression. Conclusion. Villin was downregulated in CRC. Villin immunoexpression in CRC is associated with better survival, well-differentiated tumours, and small-sized tumours. Villin has no significant association with disease recurrence or nodal metastasis. More in vivo and in vitro studies are required for further elucidation of how villin may be involved in CRC.
    09/2013; 2013:679724. DOI:10.1155/2013/679724
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    • "Aside from the gastrointestinal tract, villin also shows high expression levels in the gall bladder and kidney (Table I). Villin has been shown to regulate epithelial cell morphology, actin reorganization, apoptosis, cell motility and wound healing of enterocytes [Tomar et al., 2004, 2006; Athman et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2007, 2008, Ubelmann et al., 2013]. Expression of villin is frequently lost, or down-regulated, in poorly differentiated colon cancer [Arango et al., 2012]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca(2+) -dependent, multi-domain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Calcium binding activates gelsolin by inducing molecular gymnastics (large-scale conformational changes) that expose actin interaction surfaces by releasing a series of latches. A specialized tail latch has distinguished gelsolin within the superfamily. Active gelsolin exhibits actin filament severing and capping, and actin monomer sequestering activities. Here, we analyze a combination of sequence, structural, biophysical and biochemical data to assess whether the molecular plasticity, regulation and actin-related properties of gelsolin are also present in other superfamily members. We conclude that all members of the superfamily will be able to transition between a compact conformation and a more open form, and that most of these open forms will interact with actin. Supervillin, which lacks the severing domain 1 and the F-actin binding-site on domain 2, is the clear exception. Eight calcium-binding sites are absolutely conserved in gelsolin, adseverin, advillin and villin, and compromised to increasing degrees in CapG, villin-like protein, supervillin and flightless I. Advillin, villin and supervillin each contain a potential tail latch, which is absent from CapG, adseverin and flightless I, and ambiguous in villin-like protein. Thus, calcium regulation will vary across the superfamily. Potential novel isoforms of the superfamily suggest complex regulation at the gene, transcript and protein levels. We review animal, clinical and cellular data that illuminate how the regulation of molecular flexibility in gelsolin-like proteins permits cells to exploit the force generated from actin polymerization to drive processes such as cell movement in health and disease.
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