Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.
ABSTRACT Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Based on a broth dilution method, the Garcinia mangostana extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.039 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.039 and 0.156 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the Garcinia mangostana extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Antimicrobial activity from fractions of column chromatography revealed one of the active compounds in Garcinia mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. Taken together, our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, this plant would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.
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ABSTRACT: Garcinia mangostana L. or mangosteen of the Clusiaceae has traditionally been employed as medicinal drugs for decades. A plethora of compounds are responsible for a wide range of medicinal properties and biological activities. The ethanol extract of the mangosteen rind has been found to be anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-acne-causing bacteria. Many research studies have confirmed its potency, with the ethanol extract of the rind being able to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) at relatively low concentration. DPPH assay also revealed its potent radical scavenging activity. The compound responsible for the antibacterial activity, α-mangostin, was especially potent and one of the compounds responsible for the anti-bacterial activity.Plant Science Today 08/2014; 1(3):147-150.
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ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Terminalia arjuna bark against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Topical formulations (cream) have been developed containing flavonoid (FF-I to III) and tannin fraction (TF-I to III) of Terminalia arjuna bark at different concentrations i.e. 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/w). These topical formulations were tested for pH, viscosity, spreadability, stability, drug contents uniformity and in vitro diffusion. The drug content uniformity of creams were found within the range of 97.31% to 98.80% (FF-I to III) and 96.84% to 98.66% (TF-I to III) respectively. The formulations of FF -III and TF –III showed maximum drug release of 83% and 78% over a period of 8h. All the formulations were evaluated for its acute skin irritancy activity in Swiss Albino rats. These formulations did not produce any skin irritation for about a week when applied over the skin. Comparative studies showed that the viscosity of the formulations increases, spreadability decreases and vice versa. From the stability studies, creams showed no changes in pH, viscosity, spreadability and drug contents, after keeping at different temperatures for 90 days. In vitro antibacterial activity was performed against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus epidermidis, a causative organism for Acne vulgar for the developed formulations using agar well diffusion method. The measured zones of inhibitions of the formulations were compared with standard marketed topical herbal preparation for acne. Results of the investigation showed that formulation FF-III (cream containing 2% flavonoid fraction) has greater antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes (zones of inhibition >17 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (zones of inhibition >20 mm) than other formulations and which is comparable to that of standard marketed topical herbal preparation. Therefore, this plant would possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.
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ABSTRACT: Acne is a common but serious skin disease, which affects approximately 80% adolescents and young adults in 11-30 age group. 42.5% of men and 50.9% of women continue to suffer from this disease into their twenties. Bacterial resistance is now at the alarming stage due to the irrational use of antibiotics. Hence, search for new lead molecule/bioactive and rational delivery of the existing drug (for better therapeutic effect) to the site of action is the need of the hour. Plants and plant-derived products have been an integral part of health care system since time immemorial. Therefore, plants that are currently used for the treatment of acne and those with a high potential are summarized in the present review. Most active plant extracts, namely, P. granatum, M. alba, A. anomala, and M. aquifolium exhibit minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 4-50 µg/mL against P. acnes, while aromatic oils of C. obovoides, C. natsudaidai, C. japonica, and C. nardus possess MICs 0.005-0.6 μL/mL and phytomolecules such as rhodomyrtone, pulsaquinone, hydropulsaquinone, honokiol, magnolol, xanthohumol lupulones, chebulagic acid and rhinacanthin-C show MIC in the range of 0.5-12.5 μg/mL. Novel drug delivery strategies of important plant leads in the treatment of acne have also been discussed.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:301304. · 2.71 Impact Factor