Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria
ABSTRACT Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Based on a broth dilution method, the Garcinia mangostana extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.039 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.039 and 0.156 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the Garcinia mangostana extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Antimicrobial activity from fractions of column chromatography revealed one of the active compounds in Garcinia mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. Taken together, our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, this plant would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.
SourceAvailable from: Niranjan Kotla[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (a potent antibacterial) was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of -43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA) and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 μg/cm(2) and 5.04±0.014 μg/cm(2), respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 μg, 2.68 μg, and 15.54 μg amounts of TRA and 68.85 μg, 59.98 μg, and 143.78 μg amounts of BPO were retained in the layers of skin, respectively. In vivo studies of the niosomal gel and antiacne cream of TRA and BPO showed that the niosomal gel was more efficacious than the antiacne cream because niosomal gels with a 4.16-fold lower dose of BPO provided the same therapeutic index at targeted sites in comparison to the antiacne cream.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2015; 10:171-82. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S70449 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A total of ten biological compounds were isolated from the leaves of Barleria montana Nees. by using GC-MS analysis. Among them, the Benzaldehyde,2-hydroxy-6-methyl-and Urs-12-en-24-oicacid,3-oxo-,methyl ester,(+)-as major compounds. The aqueous and different solvent extracts (acetone, chloroform, di-chloromethane, ethanol and methanol) of the plant were tested for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results highlighted that the acetone extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity than other extracts. The aqueous extract showed significant activity in most of the organisms. The study encourages this plant may be used as alternative medicine for the treatment of diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The fruit rind extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) of which a major active component is α-mangostin, has been popularly used in food supplements and herbal cosmetic preparations. α-Mangostin is used as a marker quantitative analysis and standardization of the raw materials and preparation from this plant. The precise method for analysis of plant constituents is normally a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC). The aims of this study were to develop and validate a RP-HPLC method for determination of α-mangostin content in the extracts of mangosteen fruit rind. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil ® BDS C-18 column (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 µm) at room temperature using a gradient mobile phase consisting of 70-80 % acetonitrile in 0.1 %v/v ortho phosphoric acid at the flow rate of 1 mL min -1 with a UV detection at 320 nm. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity of the proposed method was found in the range of 10–200 µg mL -1 with regression coefficient 0.9999. Intraday and interday precision studies showed the relative standard deviation less than 2 %. Accuracy of the method was determined by a recovery study conducted at 3 different levels, and the average recovery was 100.01 %. The LOD and LOQ were 0.06 and 0.17 µg mL -1 , respectively. Two samples of mangosteen fruit rind were separately extracted and analyzed using validated HPLC method. The contents of α-mangostin in the crude extracts and dried powder were within the ranges of 8.36 – 10.04 and 1.84 – 2.47 %w/w, respectively. This developed HPLC method was proven to be precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate for routine quality assessment of raw material of mangosteen fruit rind, its extract, and products.