Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Based on a broth dilution method, the Garcinia mangostana extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.039 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.039 and 0.156 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the Garcinia mangostana extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Antimicrobial activity from fractions of column chromatography revealed one of the active compounds in Garcinia mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. Taken together, our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, this plant would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.
"At the concentration of 50 µg/ml of crude ethanol extract, it was able to inhibit 99.59 % of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. DPPH scavenging assay also revealed its potent antioxidant activity, with the half-maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) of 6.13 µg/ml and 77.80 ± 1.28 % superoxide radical inhibition ratio, the lowest among medicinal herbs tested (Chomnawang et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Garcinia mangostana L. or mangosteen of the Clusiaceae has traditionally been employed as medicinal drugs for decades. A plethora of compounds are responsible for a wide range of medicinal properties and biological activities. The ethanol extract of the mangosteen rind has been found to be anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-acne-causing bacteria. Many research studies have confirmed its potency, with the ethanol extract of the rind being able to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) at relatively low concentration. DPPH assay also revealed its potent radical scavenging activity. The compound responsible for the antibacterial activity, α-mangostin, was especially potent and one of the compounds responsible for the anti-bacterial activity.
"P. acnes is an obligate anaerobic organism that has capability to metabolise sebaceous triglycerides into fatty acids inside sebaceous gland. Also, due to the increased production of sebum, thickening of epidermis at the outlet of pilosebaceous unit occurs resulting in obstruction to the flow of sebum outwards and a comedo develops (Chomnawang et al., 2005; Coenye et al., 2012). Due to increased fatty acids content, the production of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the damaged follicular walls lead to the release of various cytokines like interleukin 8 (IL 8) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF a) as host immune response. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study reports on the potential of Leucosidea sericea addressing acne vulgaris. Four known compounds namely phytol acetate, triacontanol, phytol and alpha kosin and one new compound namely, (E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylheptadec-2-ene-1,17-diol have been isolated for the first time from this plant. The ethanol extract of leaves and one of the isolated compounds, alpha kosin exhibited significant minimum inhibitory concentration (with MIC values 15.7 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively) against acne inducing bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, the transmission electron micrographs showed the efflux of intracellular content of the cells of P. acnes caused by plant extract and alpha kosin. The ethanol extract of L. sericea exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing interleukin 8 (IL 8) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF α) in coculture of human U937 cells and heat killed P. acnes at concentrations of 25.0, 12.5 and 6.2 μg/mL.
"In traditional medicine this plant is used in the treatment of coughs, colds, and skin diseases , wound healing, and as a local antiseptic agent . C. odorata is a medicinal plant having diverse pharmacological properties, namely, antiinflammatory  , antimicrobial  , antigonorrhoeal , antipyretic, antispasmodic , diuretic , analgesic , and wound healing  activities. The chemical compositions of the essential oils of C. odorata that have been reported from different countries         are summarized in Table 1. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hydrodistilled essential oil of the roots of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of twenty-nine compounds have been identified, accounting 97.6% of the total oil. The main constituents were himachalol (24.2%), 7-isopropyl-1,4-dimethyl-2-azulenol (17.6%), androencecalinol (14.1%), and 2-methoxy-6-(1-methoxy-2-propenyl) naphthalene (5.6%). The essential oil consists mainly of phenyl derivatives (41.6%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes ((26.6%), long-chain hydrocarbons (18.9%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6.8%), oxygenated monoterpenes (2.8%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (0.9%). This study revealed that the roots of C. odorata produced different chemotypes other than leaves oil. This is the first report on the essential oil composition of the roots of C. odorata.
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