Conservation of eubacterial replicases.

CSIRO Livestock Industries, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life (Impact Factor: 2.79). 07/2005; 57(6):413-9. DOI: 10.1080/15216540500138246
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The last 15 years of effort in understanding bacterial DNA replication and repair has identified that the donut shaped beta2 sliding clamp is harnessed by very functionally different DNA polymerases throughout the lifecycle of the bacterial cell. Remarkably, the sites of binding of these polymerases, in most cases, appear to be the same shallow pocket on the beta dimer. In every case, binding of beta2 by the polymerase enhances their processivity of DNA synthesis. This binding site is also the same point of interaction between beta2 and the clamp loader complex, which binds beta2, opens and places it onto the DNA strand and then vacates the site. Beta2 may also be involved in the initiation of DNA replication again via contact through this same site. While much of the research effort has focused on Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, conservation of this complex system is becoming apparent in diverse bacteria.

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    ABSTRACT: Sliding clamps and clamp loaders are processivity factors required for efficient DNA replication. Sliding clamps are ring-shaped complexes that tether DNA polymerases to DNA to increase the processivity of synthesis. Clamp loaders assemble these ring-shaped clamps onto DNA in an ATP-dependent reaction. The overall process of clamp loading is dynamic in that protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions must actively change in a coordinated fashion to complete the mechanical clamp-loading reaction cycle. The clamp loader must initially have a high affinity for both the clamp and DNA to bring these macromolecules together, but then must release the clamp on DNA for synthesis to begin. Evidence is presented for a mechanism in which the clamp-loading reaction comprises a series of binding reactions to ATP, the clamp, DNA, and ADP, each of which promotes some change in the conformation of the clamp loader that alters interactions with the next component of the pathway. These changes in interactions must be rapid enough to allow the clamp loader to keep pace with replication fork movement. This review focuses on the measurement of dynamic and transient interactions required to assemble the Escherichia coli sliding clamp on DNA.
    Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 01/2006; 41(3):179-208. · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sliding clamps and clamp loaders were initially identified as DNA polymerase processivity factors. Sliding clamps are ring-shaped protein complexes that encircle and slide along duplex DNA, and clamp loaders are enzymes that load these clamps onto DNA. When bound to a sliding clamp, DNA polymerases remain tightly associated with the template being copied, but are able to translocate along DNA at rates limited by rates of nucleotide incorporation. Many different enzymes required for DNA replication and repair use sliding clamps. Clamps not only increase the processivity of these enzymes, but may also serve as an attachment point to coordinate the activities of enzymes required for a given process. Clamp loaders are members of the AAA+ family of ATPases and use energy from ATP binding and hydrolysis to catalyze the mechanical reaction of loading clamps onto DNA. Many structural and functional features of clamps and clamp loaders are conserved across all domains of life. Here, the mechanism of clamp loading is reviewed by comparing features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic clamps and clamp loaders.
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    ABSTRACT: Within the last 15 years, members of the bacterial genus Acinetobacter have risen from relative obscurity to be among the most important sources of hospital-acquired infections. The driving force for this has been the remarkable ability of these organisms to acquire antibiotic resistance determinants, with some strains now showing resistance to every antibiotic in clinical use. There is an urgent need for new antibacterial compounds to combat the threat imposed by Acinetobacter spp. and other intractable bacterial pathogens. The essential processes of chromosomal DNA replication, transcription, and cell division are attractive targets for the rational design of antimicrobial drugs. The goal of this review is to examine the wealth of genome sequence and gene knockout data now available for Acinetobacter spp., highlighting those aspects of essential systems that are most suitable as drug targets. Acinetobacter spp. show several key differences from other pathogenic gammaproteobacteria, particularly in global stress response pathways. The involvement of these pathways in short- and long-term antibiotic survival suggests that Acinetobacter spp. cope with antibiotic-induced stress differently from other microorganisms.
    Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR 06/2010; 74(2):273-97. · 12.59 Impact Factor

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