Article

Conservation of eubacterial replicases.

CSIRO Livestock Industries, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life (Impact Factor: 2.79). 07/2005; 57(6):413-9. DOI: 10.1080/15216540500138246
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The last 15 years of effort in understanding bacterial DNA replication and repair has identified that the donut shaped beta2 sliding clamp is harnessed by very functionally different DNA polymerases throughout the lifecycle of the bacterial cell. Remarkably, the sites of binding of these polymerases, in most cases, appear to be the same shallow pocket on the beta dimer. In every case, binding of beta2 by the polymerase enhances their processivity of DNA synthesis. This binding site is also the same point of interaction between beta2 and the clamp loader complex, which binds beta2, opens and places it onto the DNA strand and then vacates the site. Beta2 may also be involved in the initiation of DNA replication again via contact through this same site. While much of the research effort has focused on Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, conservation of this complex system is becoming apparent in diverse bacteria.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
77 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The DNA sliding clamp is a multifunctional protein involved in cellular DNA transactions. In Archaea and Eukaryota, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the sliding clamp. The ring-shaped PCNA encircles double-stranded DNA within its central hole and tethers other proteins on DNA. The majority of Crenarchaeota, a subdomain of Archaea, have multiple PCNA homologues, and they are capable of forming heterotrimeric rings for their functions. In contrast, most organisms in Euryarchaeota, the other major subdomain, have a single PCNA forming a homotrimeric ring structure. Among the Euryarchaeota whose genome is sequenced, Thermococcus kodakarensis is the only species with two genes encoding PCNA homologues on its genome. We cloned the two genes from the T. kodakarensis genome, and the gene products, PCNA1 and PCNA2, were characterized. PCNA1 stimulated the DNA synthesis reactions of the two DNA polymerases, PolB and PolD, from T. kodakarensis in vitro. PCNA2, however, only had an effect on PolB. We were able to disrupt the gene for PCNA2, whereas gene disruption for PCNA1 was not possible, suggesting that PCNA1 is essential for DNA replication. The sensitivities of the Δpcna2 mutant strain to ultraviolet irradiation (UV), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and mitomycin C (MMC) were indistinguishable from those of the wild-type strain.
    Genes to Cells 10/2012; 17(11):923-37. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A challenge in structural genomics is prediction of the function of uncharacterized proteins. When proteins cannot be related to other proteins of known activity, identification of function based on sequence or structural homology is impossible and in such cases it would be useful to assess structurally conserved binding sites in connection with the protein's function. In this paper, we propose the function of a protein of unknown activity, the Tm1631 protein from Thermotoga maritima, by comparing its predicted binding site to a library containing thousands of candidate structures. The comparison revealed numerous similarities with nucleotide binding sites including specifically, a DNA-binding site of endonuclease IV. We constructed a model of this Tm1631 protein with a DNA-ligand from the newly found similar binding site using ProBiS, and validated this model by molecular dynamics. The interactions predicted by the Tm1631-DNA model corresponded to those known to be important in endonuclease IV-DNA complex model and the corresponding binding free energies, calculated from these models were in close agreement. We thus propose that Tm1631 is a DNA binding enzyme with endonuclease activity that recognizes DNA lesions in which at least two consecutive nucleotides are unpaired. Our approach is general, and can be applied to any protein of unknown function. It might also be useful to guide experimental determination of function of uncharacterized proteins.
    PLoS Computational Biology 11/2013; 9(11):e1003341. · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cell can be thought of as a highly sophisticated micro factory: in a pool of billions of molecules - metabolites, structural proteins, enzymes, oligonucleotides - multi-subunit complexes assemble to perform a large number of basic cellular tasks, such as DNA replication, RNA/protein synthesis or intracellular transport. By purifying single components and using them to reconstitute molecular processes in a test tube, researchers have gathered crucial knowledge about mechanistic, dynamic and structural properties of biochemical pathways. However, to sort this information into an accurate cellular road map, we need to understand reactions in their relevant context within the cellular hierarchy, which is at the individual molecule level within a crowded, cellular environment. Reactions occur in a stochastic fashion, have short-lived and not necessarily well-defined intermediates, and dynamically form functional entities. With the use of single-molecule techniques these steps can be followed and detailed kinetic information that otherwise would be hidden in ensemble averaging can be obtained. One of the first complex cellular tasks that have been studied at the single-molecule level is the replication of DNA. The replisome, the multi-protein machinery responsible for copying DNA, is built from a large number of proteins that function together in an intricate and efficient fashion allowing the complex to tolerate DNA damage, roadblocks or fluctuations in subunit concentration. In this review, we summarize advances in single-molecule studies, both in vitro and in vivo, that have contributed to our current knowledge of the mechanistic principles underlying DNA replication.
    Chemical Society Reviews 01/2014; · 24.89 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads