Diabetes mellitus among outpatients receiving clozapine: Prevalence and clinical-demographic correlates
Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
(Impact Factor: 5.5).
08/2005; 66(7):900-6. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.v66n0713
Treatment with antipsychotic drugs has been associated with increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus. Recent consensus statements suggest that clozapine may pose an especially high risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and clinical-demographic correlates of diabetes among outpatients with DSM-IV-diagnosed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving clozapine.
One hundred one outpatients receiving clozapine at the University of Rochester Department of Psychiatry, Rochester, N.Y., were evaluated between September 2002 and September 2003. Demographic data were collected from medical records, and body mass index (BMI) and body fat measurements were conducted. Diagnosis of diabetes was established through review of medical records and fasting blood glucose testing. Associations between clinical and demographic variables and diabetes were examined using t tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression.
Mean (SD) age of patients was 40.4 (9.5) years, and 79% were white. Mean (SD) dose and duration of clozapine treatment were 426 (164) mg/day and 5.7 (3.6) years, respectively. Point prevalence of diabetes was 25.7%. Mean (SD) BMI was 32.6 (8.0) kg/m(2), and mean (SD) body fat was 34.0% (11.0%). Logistic regression revealed significant associations between diabetes and nonwhite race/ethnicity and family history of diabetes (p = .02 and .002, respectively). No significant associations were found between diabetes prevalence and BMI or body fat.
Patients receiving clozapine are at substantial risk for developing diabetes, although the level of risk relative to other antipsychotic medications has not been fully determined. Clinicians should monitor all severely mentally ill patients receiving antipsychotic drugs for diabetes, with closer monitoring of patients with established demographic risk factors.
Available from: Leonel E Rojo
- "This polymorphism seemingly functions as a risk predictor for clozapine-/olanzpaine-induced weight, because the carriers of the C allele gain more weight compared with the subjects homozygous for the GG allele . Regardless of baseline BMI, ethnicity  and initial body fat mass, the advanced age, and female gender are more relevant in the clinical manifestation of SGAs side effects, as the female SGA-treated patients had a higher incidence of diabetes compared with the general population  "
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ABSTRACT: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), such as clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine, are among the most effective therapies to stabilize symptoms schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum disorders. In fact, clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone have improved the quality of life of billions SZ patients worldwide. Based on the broad spectrum of efficacy and low risk of extrapyramidal symptoms displayed by SGAs, some regulatory agencies approved the use of SGAs in non-schizophrenic adults, children and adolescents suffering from a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, increasing number of reports have shown that SGAs are strongly associated with accelerated weight gain, insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and increased the cardiovascular risk. These metabolic alterations can develop in as short as six months after the initiation of pharmacotherapy, which is now a controversial fact in public disclosure. Although the percentage of schizophrenic patients, the main target group of SGAs, is estimated in only 1% of the population, during the past ten years there was an exponential increase in the number of SGAs users, including millions of non-SZ patients. The scientific bases of SGAs metabolic side effects are not yet elucidated, but the evidence shows that the activation of transcriptional factor SRBP1c, the D1/D2 dopamine, GABA2 and 5HT neurotransmitions are implicated in the SGAs cardiovascular toxicity. Polypharmacological interventions are either non- or modestly effective in maintaining low cardiovascular risk in SGAs users. In this review we critically discuss the clinical and molecular evidence on metabolic alterations induced by SGAs, the evidence on the efficacy of classical antidiabetic drugs and the emerging concept of antidiabetic polyphenols as potential coadjutants in SGA-induced metabolic disorders.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pharmacological Research 07/2015; 101. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2015.07.022 · 4.41 Impact Factor
Available from: scielo.br
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUÇÃO: Um aumento na incidência de obesidade e diabetes melito entre pacientes psiquiátricos foi observado ainda na década de 60, como resultado indesejável do uso de antipsicóticos. Nos anos 80 e 90, a reabilitação da clozapina, a síntese dos demais antipsicóticos atípicos e a disseminação do uso do lítio e do ácido valpróico chamaram novamente a atenção para os efeitos metabólicos desses medicamentos. Este estudo tem por objetivo revisar a literatura médica a respeito dos efeitos adversos metabólicos associados ao uso de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma extensa pesquisa nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS até outubro de 2005. CONCLUSÃO: Os efeitos adversos metabólicos permanecem como problemas importantes da psicofarmacologia. Ganho de peso clinicamente relevante ocorre com freqüência em pacientes em uso de antipsicóticos e estabilizadores de humor, principalmente naqueles em uso de clozapina, olanzapina, lítio e ácido valpróico. A clozapina e a olanzapina associam-se também a uma maior incidência de diabetes melito e dislipidemias, seja devido ao ganho de peso, seja por ação deletéria direta sobre o metabolismo da glicose. A incidência de obesidade e outros distúrbios metabólicos é menor com a risperidona, se comparada à olanzapina ou à clozapina. Carbamazepina associa-se a menor ganho de peso, se comparada ao lítio ou ao ácido valpróico. Drogas como o haloperidol, a ziprasidona, o aripiprazol e a lamotrigina não estão associadas a ganho importante de peso ou a maior incidência de diabetes melito e são alternativas para pacientes mais propensos a desenvolver tais efeitos adversos.
Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul 01/2006; 28(2).
Available from: Fábio Lopes Rocha
Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul 08/2006; 28(2). DOI:10.1590/S0101-81082006000200011
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