Molecular characterization of familial hypercholesterolemia in German and Greek patients.
ABSTRACT We used the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to define mutations in the promoter region, the 18 exons, and their flanking intronic sequences of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene LDLR, causing familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) phenotype in 100 German and in 100 Greek hypercholesterolemic individuals. In addition, we tested all patients for the presence of mutations in codons 3456-3553 of the gene encoding apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB). Twenty-six aberrant DGGE patterns were identified and subsequently directly sequenced. In LDLR, two novel missense mutations (c.1957G>T/p.V653F, c.647 G>A/p.C216Y) and one novel homozygous base substitution c.1-156 C>T in the repeat 2 of the promoter region were identified among German FH patients; one novel splice site c.1060+10C>G was identified among Greek FH patients. One of the German FH patients was a carrier for the mutations c.1171G>A/p.A391T and p.V653F, and two of the Greek FH patients were compound heterozygotes for the mutations c.1150C>T/p.Q384X and c.1158C>G/p.D386E. Two German FH patients carried the mutation p.R3500Q within APOB. Comparing the mutations within the LDLR gene of the two European FH populations, the German population seems to be more heterogeneous than the Greek cohort. Further studies in progress are trying to elucidate the responsiveness to drug therapy in association with LDLR genotype and the nutritional habits of the two FH populations.
Article: Analysis of sequence variations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene among Malaysian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown.We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan). The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements. A total of 29 gene sequence variants were reported in 117(76.0%) of the studied subjects. Eight different mutations (1 large rearrangement, 1 short deletion, 5 missense mutations, and 1 splice site mutation), and 21 variants. Eight gene sequence variants were reported for the first time and they were noticed in familial hypercholesterolemic patients, but not in controls (p.Asp100Asp, p.Asp139His, p.Arg471Gly, c.1705+117 T>G, c.1186+41T>A, 1705+112C>G, Dup exon 12 and p.Trp666ProfsX45). The incidence of the p.Arg471Gly variant was 11%. Patients with pathogenic mutations were younger, had significantly higher incidences of cardiovascular disease, xanthomas, and family history of hyperlipidemia, together with significantly higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels than patients with non-pathogenic variants. Twenty-nine gene sequence variants occurred among FH patients; those with predicted pathogenicity were associated with higher incidences of cardiovascular diseases, tendon xanthomas, and higher total and low density lipoprotein levels compared to the rest. These results provide preliminary information on the mutation spectrum of this gene among patients with FH in Malaysia.BMC Medical Genetics 03/2011; 12:40. · 2.33 Impact Factor