Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people.

Norwegian Directorate for Health and Social Affairs, P.O.Box 8054 Dep., Oslo, Norway, N-0031.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 02/2004; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003683.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Psychological and behavioural problems in children and adolescents are common, and improving self-esteem may help to prevent the development of such problems. There is strong evidence for the positive physical health outcomes of exercise, but the evidence of exercise on mental health is scarce.
To determine if exercise alone or exercise as part of a comprehensive intervention can improve self-esteem among children and young people.
Computerised searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), CINAHL, PsycINFO and ERIC were undertaken and reference lists from relevant articles were scanned. Relevant studies were also traced by contacting authors. Dates of most recent searches: May 2003 in (CENTRAL), all others: January 2002.
Randomised controlled trials where the study population consisted of children and young people aged from 3 to 20 years, in which one intervention arm was gross motor activity for more than four weeks and the outcome measure was self-esteem.
Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the validity of included trials and extracted data. Investigators were contacted to collect missing data or for clarification when necessary.
Twenty-three trials with a total of 1821 children and young people were included. Generally, the trials were small, and only one was assessed to have a low risk of bias. Thirteen trials compared exercise alone with no intervention. Eight were included in the meta-analysis, and overall the results were heteregeneous. One study with a low risk of bias showed a standardised mean difference (SMD) of 1.33 (95% CI 0.43 to 2.23), while the SMD's for the three studies with a moderate risk of bias and the four studies with a high risk of bias was 0.21 (95% CI -0.17 to 0.59) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.11 to 1.04), respectively. Twelve trials compared exercise as part of a comprehensive programme with no intervention. Only four provided data sufficient to calculate overall effects, and the results indicate a moderate short-term difference in self-esteem in favour of the intervention [SMD 0.51 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.88)].
The results indicate that exercise has positive short-term effects on self-esteem in children and young people. Since there are no known negative effects of exercise and many positive effects on physical health, exercise may be an important measure in improving children's self-esteem. These conclusions are based on several small low-quality trials.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Excessive recreational screen time (i.e., screen use for entertainment) is a global public health issue associated with adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Considering the growing popularity of screen-based recreation in adolescents, there is a need to identify effective strategies for reducing screen time among adolescents. The aim of this paper is to report the rationale and study protocol for the 'Switch-off 4 Healthy Minds' (S4HM) study, an intervention designed to reduce recreational screen time among adolescents. The S4HM intervention will be evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in eight secondary schools (N=322 students) in New South Wales, Australia. The 6-month multi-component intervention will encourage adolescents to manage their recreational screen time using a range of evidence-based strategies. The intervention is grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and includes the following components: an interactive seminar for students, eHealth messaging, behavioral contract and parental newsletters. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at 6-months (i.e., immediate post-test). The primary outcome is recreational screen time measured by the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire (ASAQ). Secondary outcomes include: self-reported psychological well-being, psychological distress, global physical self-concept, resilience, pathological video gaming and aggression, and objectively measured physical activity (accelerometry) and body mass index (BMI). Hypothesized mediators of behavior change will also be explored. The S4HM study will involve the evaluation of an innovative, theory-driven, multi-component intervention that targets students and their parents and is designed to reduce recreational screen time in adolescents. The intervention has been designed for scalability and dissemination across Australian secondary schools. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Contemporary Clinical Trials 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.12.001 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese adolescent boys of Māori and Pasifika descent. However, despite these positive attributes, poor recruitment rates suggest that future work should focus on identifying the barriers to engagement. Key pointsA boxing-oriented intervention was developed for use with Māori and Pasifika adolescents to improve cardiometabolic risk factors.While results indicate positive benefits of participation in the 60-minute boxing-orientated programme, only three participants were recruited despite intense promotion.Future research should investigate the efficacy of strategies designed to raise intentions to exercise.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 12/2014; 13(4):751-757. · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated in parents and children, but few studies have examined associations between recurrent parental problems and offspring symptoms, and fathers have rarely been included in these studies. Additionally, few have investigated factors that may protect against familial aggregation of anxiety and depression. The aims of the present study are to examine the associations between recurrent parental anxiety/depression over a ten-year time span and offspring anxiety/depression in adolescence and to test whether two factors proposed to be inversely related to anxiety and depression, namely, adolescent self-esteem and physical activity, may moderate and mediate the transmission of anxiety/depression. Methods This study used data from two waves of a Norwegian community study (the HUNT study) consisting of 5,732 adolescents, ages 13–18, (mean age = 15.8, 50.3% girls) who had one (N = 1,761 mothers; N = 742 fathers) or both parents (N = 3,229) participating in the second wave. In the first wave, 78% of the parents also participated. The adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires on self-esteem, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression, whereas parents reported on their own anxiety/depressive symptoms. The data were analysed with structural equation modeling. Results The presence of parental anxiety/depression when offspring were of a preschool age predicted offspring anxiety/depression when they reached adolescence, but these associations were entirely mediated by current parental symptoms. Self-esteem partly mediated the associations between anxiety/depression in parents and offspring. No sex differences were found. Physical activity moderated the direct associations between anxiety/depression in mothers and offspring, whereas no moderating effect was evident with regard to paternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions These findings suggest that children of parents with anxiety/depression problems are at a sustained risk for mental health problems due to the apparent 10-year stability of both maternal and paternal anxiety/depression. Thus, preventing familial aggregation of these problems as early as possible seems vital. The associations between parental and offspring anxiety/depression were partially mediated by offspring self-esteem and were moderated by physical activity. Hence, prevention and treatment efforts could be aimed at increasing self-esteem and encouraging physical activity in vulnerable children of parents with anxiety/depression.
    BMC Public Health 02/2015; 15(78). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1431-0 · 2.32 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014