Receptors that mediate cellular dependence.
ABSTRACT Cells depend for their survival on stimulation by trophic factors and other prosurvival signals, the withdrawal of which induces apoptosis, both via the loss of antiapoptotic signaling and the activation of proapoptotic signaling via specific receptors. These receptors, dubbed dependence receptors, activate apoptotic pathways following the withdrawal of trophic factors and other supportive stimuli. Such receptors may feature in developmental cell death, carcinogenesis (including metastasis), neurodegeneration, and possibly subapoptotic events such as neurite retraction and somal atrophy. Mechanistic studies of dependence receptors suggest that these receptors form ligand-dependent complexes that include specific caspases. Complex formation in the absence of ligand leads to caspase activation by a mechanism that is typically dependent on caspase cleavage of the receptor itself, releasing proapoptotic peptides. Cellular dependence receptors, considered in the aggregate, may thus form a system of molecular integration, analogous to the electrical integration system provided by dendritic arbors in the nervous system.
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ABSTRACT: Acute neurological conditions such as cerebrovascular diseases and trauma are associated with irreversible loss of neurons and glial cells. Severe or prolonged injury results in uncontrollable cell death within the core of lesions. Conversely, cells that are less severely damaged succumb in a relatively slow fashion, frequently via the intrinsic pathway of cell death, through the deterioration of mitochondrial functions. The permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes determines whether cells will succumb to or survive the injury, and represents a 'point of no return' in mitochondrial cell death. It is therefore an attractive target for the development of new neuroprotective interventions.Nature Reviews Neuroscience 08/2009; 10(7):481-94. · 26.48 Impact Factor
Article: Netrin-1 up-regulation in inflammatory bowel diseases is required for colorectal cancer progression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation and cancer are intimately associated. This is particularly true for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which show a major increased risk for colorectal cancer. While the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IBD has recently improved, the mechanisms that link these chronic inflammatory states to colorectal cancer development are in large part unknown. One of these mechanisms is NF-kappaB pathway activation which in turn may contribute to tumor formation by providing anti-apoptotic survival signals to the epithelial cells. Based on the observation that netrin-1, the anti-apoptotic ligand for the dependence receptors DCC and UNC5H is up-regulated in colonic crypts in response to NF-kappaB, we show here that colorectal cancers from inflammatory bowel diseases patients have selected up-regulation of netrin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inflammation-driven netrin-1 up-regulation is causal for colorectal cancer development as interference with netrin-1 autocrine loop in a mouse model for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, while showing no effect on inflammation, inhibits colorectal cancer progression.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2009; 106(40):17146-51. · 9.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patched (Ptc), the main receptor for Sonic Hedgehog, is a tumor suppressor. Ptc has been shown to be a dependence receptor, and as such triggers apoptosis in the absence of its ligand. This apoptosis induction occurs through the recruitment by the Ptc intracellular domain of a caspase-activating complex, which includes the adaptor proteins DRAL and TUCAN, and the apical caspase-9. We show here that this caspase-activating complex also includes the E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4. We demonstrate that Ptc-mediated apoptosis and Ptc-induced caspase-9 activation require NEDD4. We show that Ptc, but not Bax, the prototypical inducer of the intrinsic cell-death pathway, triggers polyubiquitination of caspase-9. Moreover, a caspase-9 mutant that could not be ubiquitinated failed to mediate Ptc-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these data support the view that the Ptc dependence receptor specifically allows the activation of caspase-9 via its ubiquitination, which occurs via the recruitment by Ptc of NEDD4.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2012; 109(26):10510-5. · 9.68 Impact Factor