Co-expression of cytochrome b561 and ascorbate oxidase in leaves of wild watermelon under drought and high light conditions.
ABSTRACT Despite carrying out C3 photosynthesis, wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus sp.) exhibits exceedingly good tolerance to severe drought at high light intensities. However, the mechanism(s) by which this plant protects itself from photodamage has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we characterized wild watermelon cytochrome b561 (cyt b561), which potentially mediates regeneration of apoplastic ascorbate by transferring electrons from cytosolic ascorbate across the plasma membrane. Two cDNA species for wild watermelon cyt b561, designated CLb561A and CLb561B, were isolated. Levels of both CLb561A mRNA and protein were significantly elevated in the leaves during drought at a light intensity of 700 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1). The transcript of CLb561B was detected to a much lesser extent, but no CLb561B protein was produced under any condition used in this study. A transient expression assay with the CLb561A::green fluorescent protein fusion construct showed clear fluorescence on the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. The CLb561A protein was enriched in the plasma membrane fraction in leaves of transgenic tobacco expressing CLb561A. Moreover, the high activity of apoplastic ascorbate oxidase (AO), which was able to dispose of cyt b561-transferred reducing equivalents, increased in leaves of wild watermelon grown at high light intensity, but not lower light intensities. Taken together, these observations suggest the occurrence of a novel pathway for excess light energy dissipation in wild watermelon leaves, where excessive energy absorbed by chloroplasts can be transported to and dissipated safely in the apoplasts through the cooperative action of cyt b561 and AO.
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ABSTRACT: Significance: Cytochromes b561 (CYB561s) constitute a family of trans-membrane (TM), di-heme proteins, occurring in a variety of organs and cell types, in plants and animals, and using ascorbate (ASC) as an electron donor. CYB561s function as monodehydroascorbate (MDHA) reductase, regenerating ASC, and as Fe3+-reductases, providing reduced iron for TM transport. A CYB561-core domain is also associated with DOMON redox domains in ubiquitous CYBDOM proteins. In plants, CYBDOMs form large protein families. Physiological functions supported by CYB561s and CYBDOMs, include stress defense, cell wall modifications, iron metabolism, tumor suppression, and various neurological processes, including memory retention. CYB561s therefore significantly broaden our view on the physiological roles of ASC. Recent advances: the ubiquitous nature of CYB561s is only recently being recognized. Significant advances have been made through the study of recombinant CYB561s, revealing structural and functional properties of a unique "two-heme four-helix" protein configuration. In addition, the DOMON domains of CYBDOMs are suggested to contain another heme b. Critical Issues: new CYB561 proteins are still being identified, and there is a need to provide an insight and overview on the various roles of these proteins, and their structural properties. Future directions: mutant studies will reveal in more detail the mechanisms by which CYB561s and CYBDOMs participate in cell metabolism in plants and animals. Moreover, the availability of efficient heterologous expression systems should allow protein crystallization, more detailed (atomic-level) structural information and insight in the intra-molecular mechanism of electron transport.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 12/2012; · 8.20 Impact Factor
Article: Heterologous production and characterisation of two distinct dihaem-containing membrane integral cytochrome b(561) enzymes from Arabidopsis thaliana in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome (cyt) b(561) proteins are dihaem-containing membrane proteins, belonging to the CYBASC (cytochrome-b(561)-ascorbate-reducible) family, and are proposed to be involved in ascorbate recycling and/or the facilitation of iron absorption. Here, we present the heterologous production of two cyt b(561) paralogs from Arabidopsis thaliana (Acytb(561)-A, Acytb(561)-B) in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, their purification, and initial characterisation. Spectra indicated that Acytb(561)-A resembles the best characterised member of the CYBASC family, the cytochrome b(561) from adrenomedullary chromaffin vesicles, and that Acytb(561)-B is atypical compared to other CYBASC proteins. Haem oxidation-reduction midpoint potential (E(M)) values were found to be fully consistent with ascorbate oxidation activities and Fe(3+)-chelates reductase activities. The ascorbate dependent reduction and protein stability of both paralogs were found to be sensitive to alkaline pH values as reported for the cytochrome b(561) from chromaffin vesicles. For both paralogs, ascorbate-dependent reduction was inhibited and the low-potential haem E(M) values were affected significantly by incubation with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) in the absence of ascorbate. Modification with DEPC in the presence of ascorbate left the haem E(M) values unaltered compared to the unmodified proteins. However, ascorbate reduction was inhibited. We concluded that the ascorbate-binding site is located near the low-potential haem with the Fe(3+)-chelates reduction-site close to the high-potential haem. Furthermore, inhibition of ascorbate oxidation by DEPC treatment occurs not only by lowering the haem E(M) values but also by an additional modification affecting ascorbate binding and/or electron transfer. Analytical gel filtration experiments suggest that both cyt b(561) paralogs exist as homodimers.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2011; 1818(3):679-88. · 4.66 Impact Factor