L-NAME induces direct arteriolar leukocyte adhesion, which is mainly mediated by angiotensin-II.
ABSTRACT Acute inhibition (1 h) of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with L-NAME causes leukocyte recruitment in the rat mesenteric postcapillary venules that is angiotensin-II (Ang-II) dependent. Since 4-h exposure to Ang-II provokes arteriolar leukocyte adhesion, this study was designed to investigate whether subacute (4-h) NOS inhibition also causes this effect.
Rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, L-NAME, or 1H-[1,2,4]-oxidazolol-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Leukocyte accumulation in the mesenteric microcirculation was examined 4 h later via intravital microscopy. Some groups were pretreated with losartan, an AT(1) Ang-II receptor antagonist.
At 4-h, L-NAME caused a significant increase in arteriolar leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules. Mononuclear cells were the predominant leukocytes attached to the arteriolar endothelium. Administration of losartan inhibited L-NAME-induced arteriolar leukocyte adhesion by 90%. L-NAME provoked increased expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in arterial endothelium, which was attenuated by losartan pretreatment. Inhibition of guanylyl cyclase with ODQ mimicked the effects exerted by L-NAME and losartan also reduced these effects.
NOS inhibition for 4-h results in the attachment of leukocytes to the arterial endothelium, a critical event in disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, which could be prevented by the administration of AT(1)Ang-II receptor antagonists.
- SourceAvailable from: Vincent Castranova[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs is/are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of reactive species and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) after nanoparticle exposure, and determine the relative contribution of hemoproteins and oxidative enzymes in this process. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to fine TiO2 (primary particle diameter approximately 1 microm) and TiO2 nanoparticles (primary particle diameter approximately 21 nm) via aerosol inhalation at depositions of 4-90 microg per rat. As in previous intravital experiments in the spinotrapezius muscle, dose-dependent arteriolar dilations were produced by intraluminal infusions of the calcium ionophore A23187. Nanoparticle exposure robustly attenuated these endothelium-dependent responses. However, this attenuation was not due to altered microvascular smooth muscle NO sensitivity because nanoparticle exposure did not alter arteriolar dilations in response to local sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis. Nanoparticle exposure significantly increased microvascular oxidative stress by approximately 60%, and also elevated nitrosative stress fourfold. These reactive stresses coincided with a decreased NO production in a particle deposition dose-dependent manner. Radical scavenging, or inhibition of either myeloperoxidase or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (reduced) oxidase partially restored NO production as well as normal microvascular function. These results indicate that in conjunction with microvascular dysfunction, nanoparticle exposure also decreases NO bioavailability through at least two functionally distinct mechanisms that may mutually increase local reactive species.Toxicological Sciences 04/2009; 110(1):191-203. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfp051 · 4.48 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A blueprint for the ideal anticancer molecule would include most of the properties of nitric oxide (NO*), but the ability to exploit these characteristics in a therapeutic setting requires a detailed understanding of the biology and biochemistry of the molecule. These properties include the ability of NO* to affect tumour angiogenesis, metastasis, blood flow and immuno surveillance. Furthermore NO* also has the potential to enhance both radio- and chemotherapy. However, all of these strategies are dependent on achieving appropriate levels of NO*, since endogenous levels of NO* appear to have a clear role in tumour progression. This review aims to summarize the role of NO* in cancer with particular emphasis on how the properties of NO* can be exploited for therapy.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 02/2007; 59(1):3-13. DOI:10.1211/jpp.59.1.0002 · 2.16 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase (HO) activity is known to down-regulate inflammatory events. Here, we address the role of HO and its metabolites, carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin (BVD), in leukocyte rolling, adhesion and neutrophil migration during inflammatory processes. Intravital microscopy was used to evaluate leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the mesenteric microcirculation of mice. TNFalpha and IL-1beta were determined by ELISA and HO-1 protein expression by Western blot. Intraperitoneal challenge with carrageenan enhanced HO-1 protein expression in mesentery and bilirubin concentration in peritoneal exudates. Pretreatment of mice with a non-specific inhibitor of HO (ZnDPBG) or with a HO-1 specific inhibitor (ZnPP IX) enhanced neutrophil migration, rolling and adhesion on endothelium induced by carrageenan. In contrast, HO substrate (hemin), CO donor (DMDC) or BVD reduced these parameters. The reduction of neutrophil recruitment promoted by HO metabolites was independent of the production of chemotactic cytokines. Inhibitory effects of CO, but not of BVD, were counteracted by treatment with a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, ODQ. Furthermore, inhibition of HO prevented the inhibitory effect of a nitric oxide (NO) donor (SNAP) upon neutrophil migration, while the blockade of NO synthase (NOS) activity by aminoguanidine did not affect the CO or BVD effects. Metabolites of HO decreased leukocyte rolling, adhesion and neutrophil migration to the inflammatory site by a mechanism partially dependent on sGC. Moreover, inhibition by NO of neutrophil migration was dependent on HO activity.British Journal of Pharmacology 11/2006; 149(4):345-54. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706882 · 4.99 Impact Factor