The release of nerve growth factor from the nasal mucosa following toluene diisocyanate.
ABSTRACT Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) produces rhinitis, nasal irritation, and increased synthesis and release of substance P (SP) from airway sensory nerves. Nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion in the nasal cavity is believed to mediate the irritant-induced upregulation of SP, but the cellular source of NGF in the nasal mucosa remains unclear. Studies to localize a source of NGF within the nasal mucosa are complicated by inflammatory-cell influx into the nasal mucosa following TDI, which obscures immunocytochemical identification of endogenous NGF sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular source of NGF within the nasal mucosa following irritant exposure using a combined in vivo and ex vivo approach to reduce or eliminate contribution from inflammatory cells. Both nasal cavities of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with 5 microl of 10% TDI or control vehicle. After 15 min, nasal lavages were performed and the nasal mucosa was removed and placed into culture for 3 or 24 h. NGF was measured in the lavage supernatant and the culture media. Fifteen minutes after TDI exposure, NGF was significantly increased in the nasal lavage fluid. NGF levels in the culture medium of nasal mucosa from rats exposed to TDI ex vivo were significantly increased compared to controls following a 3-h culture. NGF levels in media after 24 h in culture was higher than at the 3-h point, but there was no difference between control and TDI groups. Since the nasal mucosa was removed prior to inflammatory cell influx, these findings suggest that cells in the nasal mucosa release NGF following exposure to TDI.