Organochlorine pesticide residues in European sardine, horse mackerel and Atlantic mackerel from Portugal
ABSTRACT This paper reports the results for the surveillance of nine organochlorine pesticides (HCH isomers (alpha, beta, e, gamma), p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, HCB and aldrin) in muscle of three fish species, European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus), Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Analytical methodology included n-hexane extraction, clean-up with 2% deactivated Florisil, and quantification with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The highest mean concentrations were found for p,p'-DDT in sardine and mackerel at levels of 30.1 and 109.9 microg kg(-1), respectively, and for p,p'-DDD in horse mackerel at 51.9 microg kg(-1). Three species had higher levels for S-DDT than S-HCH. The estimated daily intake of organochlorine pesticides in the three species showed that in sardine, the highest EDIs were found for aldrin, at 1.8 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), which represents 1.8% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), and for ss-HCH, at 4.0 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.4% of ADI. Lowest values were found for Atlantic mackerel. Statistical analysis to determine the differences in mean concentrations of pesticides between species, and any correlation between groups of residues related with each one of the species, was undertaken.
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ABSTRACT: Fifteen seaweeds belong to 13 families and 6 orders of the rhodophyta were sampled for one year from April 2007 to March 2008 along the southwest coast of India (Indian Ocean). The species were examined forin vitro antimicrobial activity against six pathogenicVibrio strains isolated from moribund tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), six type cultures (Microbial Type Culture Collection, MTCC) of prominent shrimpVibrio pathogens, 10 multidrug resistant clinical pathogens, four species ofCandida obtained from pulmonary TB patients and four species of plant pathogenic fungi to evaluate their potency to be used as natural antibiotics in pharmaceutical and agriculture field. Bioactivity was analyzed from crude extract of fresh and dried samples prepared from different polar and nonpolar solvents. Of these, four species of red algae (Asparagopsis taxiformis, Laurencia ceylanica, Laurencia brandenii, Hypnea valentiae) were found to be highly active. Broadest and highest activity was observed in the crude extract ofA. Taxiformis. Among the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogenicVibrios were the most susceptible organisms while phytopathogens were found to be little resistant. In the present study, methanol was found to be the best solvent for extracting antimicrobial metabolites from dried samples rather than fresh. Seasonal variation in the antimicrobial activity was observed with higher level of activity recorded fromA. Taxiformis between December and January. The active principle ofA. Taxiformis was purified in column chromatography, TLC and reverse phase HPLC. The individual HPLC peaks were subsequently tested against a panel of pathogenic microorganisms and the active constituent was identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial profile ofA. Taxiformis suggested that lipophilic compound which was primarily composed of pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, pentadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid might have functional role in the chemical defence against microbial invasion and these compounds could be utilized for the development of medically potential products. Key wordsseaweed extract- Asparagopsis taxiformis -antimicrobial activity-shrimpVibrios -mycotoxic activity-phytopathogensAnnals of Microbiology 06/2009; 59(2):207-219. DOI:10.1007/BF03178319 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Powdered leaf and pod material of Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. was extracted with water and successively with different solvents viz., petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol. Anti-bacterial activity assays of all the extracts against the important phytopathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars, known to cause diseases in tomato, french bean and cotton, were carried out by cup diffusion method. Aqueous pod extract showed significant activity. Among the five solvents extracts tested, methanol extract of both leaf and pod was most active against all the test bacteria, followed by ethanol extract. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the extracts with the antibiotics bacterimycin 2000 and streptocycline revealed that methanol and ethanol extract of both leaf and pod and aqueous extract of pod were significantly higher than that of the antibiotics tested. Phytochemical analysis of leaf and pod materials revealed that antibacterial activity is due to the presence of phenolic and acidic fraction. Further separation of active fraction resulted in the loss of anti-bacterial activity, indicating a synergistic effect of the isolated active fraction. The results suggest that C. coriaria is a potential candidate plant for the management of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas which are known to cause diseases on cotton, french beans and tomato.