Organochlorine pesticide residues in European sardine, horse mackerel and Atlantic mackerel from Portugal.
ABSTRACT This paper reports the results for the surveillance of nine organochlorine pesticides (HCH isomers (alpha, beta, e, gamma), p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, HCB and aldrin) in muscle of three fish species, European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus), Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Analytical methodology included n-hexane extraction, clean-up with 2% deactivated Florisil, and quantification with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The highest mean concentrations were found for p,p'-DDT in sardine and mackerel at levels of 30.1 and 109.9 microg kg(-1), respectively, and for p,p'-DDD in horse mackerel at 51.9 microg kg(-1). Three species had higher levels for S-DDT than S-HCH. The estimated daily intake of organochlorine pesticides in the three species showed that in sardine, the highest EDIs were found for aldrin, at 1.8 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), which represents 1.8% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), and for ss-HCH, at 4.0 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.4% of ADI. Lowest values were found for Atlantic mackerel. Statistical analysis to determine the differences in mean concentrations of pesticides between species, and any correlation between groups of residues related with each one of the species, was undertaken.
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ABSTRACT: The human health risks due to the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) were assessed in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River (Spain). The concentrations of various persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), various hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), as well as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, were determined in samples of fish and seafood, vegetables, fruits, and rice, acquired in localities of the zone under evaluation. In general terms, pollutant concentrations were similar to recent levels reported in the literature. With the exception of the consumption of fish and seafood by children, and due to the presence of PCBs (Aroclor 1254), food intake from local sources does not pose non-carcinogenic risks for all population groups examined. The presence of OC in foods of local origin in the Catalan basin of the Ebro River would not increase the health risks for the area's consumers.Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 05/2010; 16(3):588-602. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Powdered leaf and pod material of Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. was extracted with water and successively with different solvents viz., petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol. Anti-bacterial activity assays of all the extracts against the important phytopathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars, known to cause diseases in tomato, french bean and cotton, were carried out by cup diffusion method. Aqueous pod extract showed significant activity. Among the five solvents extracts tested, methanol extract of both leaf and pod was most active against all the test bacteria, followed by ethanol extract. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the extracts with the antibiotics bacterimycin 2000 and streptocycline revealed that methanol and ethanol extract of both leaf and pod and aqueous extract of pod were significantly higher than that of the antibiotics tested. Phytochemical analysis of leaf and pod materials revealed that antibacterial activity is due to the presence of phenolic and acidic fraction. Further separation of active fraction resulted in the loss of anti-bacterial activity, indicating a synergistic effect of the isolated active fraction. The results suggest that C. coriaria is a potential candidate plant for the management of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas which are known to cause diseases on cotton, french beans and tomato.