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Available from: Martin Fromer, Apr 27, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: It remains controversial, whether spectators of soccer matches are exposed to an increased risk of cardiac events. In 2006, the Soccer World Cup (SWC) took place in Germany and provided an excellent opportunity to assess the effects of emotional stress on cardiac events in a large cohort of soccer enthusiasts in the region of Bavaria. We analyzed data from the Bavarian Council for Statistics and Data Management for the period of SWC (June 9-July 9, 2006) and reference periods (SWCRef; May 1-July 31, 2005; May 1-June 8, 2006 and July 10-31, 2006) for the following diagnoses: myocardial infarction; myocardial re-infarction; cardiac arrest; paroxysmal tachycardia; atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter; all remaining tachyarrhythmias. Data were compared to the seven days during the tournament, on which the German team played (SWCGerman), the rest of the SWC period (i.e. the days the German team did not play, 24days, SWCRest) and SWCRef (61days). There was neither a significant increase (p>0.433) in total cardiac events in Bavaria per day during SWCGerman (161.1±46.7) or SWCRest (170.5±52.3) as compared to the SWCRef (176.2±51.8), nor in any investigated diagnosis. After controlling for age, gender, loss of a match, outside temperature and nitric-dioxide air pollution levels the results remained essentially unchanged. Watching soccer was not associated with an increased incidence of cardiac events, regardless of whether the home team played or not. These data further support the hypothesis that spectators of sporting events are not exposed to an increased risk of cardiac events.
    International journal of cardiology 10/2013; 170(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.10.066 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute stress may trigger vascular events. We aimed to investigate whether important football competitions involving the French football team increased the occurrence of stroke. We retrospectively retrieved data of fatal and nonfatal stroke during 4 World Football Cups (1986, 1998, 2002, and 2006) and 4 European Championships (1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004), based on data from the population-based Stroke Registry of Dijon, France. One period of exposure was analyzed: the period of competition extended to 15 days before and after the competitions. The number of strokes was compared between exposed and unexposed corresponding periods of preceding and following years using Poisson regression. A total of 175 strokes were observed during the exposed periods compared with 192 and 217 strokes in the unexposed preceding and following periods. Multivariate regression analyses showed an overall 30% significant decrease in stroke numbers between periods of competition and unexposed periods of following year (risk ratio (RR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6; P = .029) but not with that of preceding year (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = .9-1.3; P = .367). This was mostly explained by a 40% decrease in stroke numbers during European Championships, compared with the unexposed following periods (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; P = .044) in stratified analyses by football competitions. Watching European football competitions had a positive impact in the city of Dijon with a decrease of stroke numbers. European championship is possibly associated with higher television audience and long-lasting euphoria although other factors may be involved. Further studies using nationwide data are recommended to validate these findings.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 12/2013; 23(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.10.004 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fundamentos: O estresse causado por assistir partidas de futebol pode aumentar o risco de eventos cardiovasculares, principalmente em portadores de doença coronariana. Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta hemodinâmica em telespectadores portadores de doença arterial coronariana (DAC) durante a disputa de uma partida de seu time de futebol e durante a sessão de um filme de comédia. Métodos: Torcedores foram randomizados para assistir ao jogo de seu time ou a um filme com crossover no segundo momento. O desfecho primário foi a diferença entre valores de pressão arterial média (PAM) entre os grupos; os desfechos secundários foram as diferenças entre valores de frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), pressão arterial diastólica (PAD), duplo-produto (DP) e presença de angina. Resultados: Foram randomizados 17 pacientes. Os valores de PAM (p=0,002), PAS (p=0,002), PAD (p=0,027) e DP (p=0,009) foram superiores durante a partida de futebol. A diferença entre os valores médios de PAS durante o filme e os valores basais apresentou uma redução de 8,9±14,9 mmHg (p=0,038) e durante o futebol, uma tendência não significativa de elevação de 4,3±16,5 mmHg (p=0,326). A DP durante o filme reduziu 1156,0±1140,4 mmHg/bpm (p=0,002) e durante o futebol apresentou uma redução não significativa de 77,6±1318,2 mmHg/bpm (p=0,823). A FC durante a intervenção apresentou uma queda significativa de 4,2±3,2 bpm durante o filme (p<0,001) e de 2,7±4,5 bpm (p=0,036) durante o futebol.