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Available from: Martin Fromer, Aug 16, 2015
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    • "In particular situations such as war [4], terrorist attacks [5] or earth quakes [6] [7] emotional stress is shared by a large number of people and the incidence of cardiovascular events rises [1–5,7]. As with sports like American football [8] [9], baseball [8], or ice hockey [10] it remains controversial, whether spectators of soccer matches are exposed to an increased risk of cardiac events [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23]. In 2006, the Soccer World Cup (SWC) took place in Germany and this provided an excellent opportunity to assess the effects of emotional stress i.e. watching soccer on cardiac events in a large cohort of soccer enthusiasts in the region of Bavaria. "
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    ABSTRACT: It remains controversial, whether spectators of soccer matches are exposed to an increased risk of cardiac events. In 2006, the Soccer World Cup (SWC) took place in Germany and provided an excellent opportunity to assess the effects of emotional stress on cardiac events in a large cohort of soccer enthusiasts in the region of Bavaria. We analyzed data from the Bavarian Council for Statistics and Data Management for the period of SWC (June 9-July 9, 2006) and reference periods (SWCRef; May 1-July 31, 2005; May 1-June 8, 2006 and July 10-31, 2006) for the following diagnoses: myocardial infarction; myocardial re-infarction; cardiac arrest; paroxysmal tachycardia; atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter; all remaining tachyarrhythmias. Data were compared to the seven days during the tournament, on which the German team played (SWCGerman), the rest of the SWC period (i.e. the days the German team did not play, 24days, SWCRest) and SWCRef (61days). There was neither a significant increase (p>0.433) in total cardiac events in Bavaria per day during SWCGerman (161.1±46.7) or SWCRest (170.5±52.3) as compared to the SWCRef (176.2±51.8), nor in any investigated diagnosis. After controlling for age, gender, loss of a match, outside temperature and nitric-dioxide air pollution levels the results remained essentially unchanged. Watching soccer was not associated with an increased incidence of cardiac events, regardless of whether the home team played or not. These data further support the hypothesis that spectators of sporting events are not exposed to an increased risk of cardiac events.
    International journal of cardiology 10/2013; 170(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.10.066 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    • "The effects of positive events and health appear to be mixed. Although Berthier and Boulay (2003) found deaths dropped in France when they won the World Cup, a study by Katz et al. (2005) found an increase in cardiac arrests in Switzerland during the World Cup. However, positive responses to sporting competitions can be confounded by behaviors such as alcohol consumption and smoking, failure to comply with medical regimens, a decrease in physical activity, and stress during the event. "
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    ABSTRACT: Seven types of evidence are reviewed that indicate that high subjective well-being (such as life satisfaction, absence of negative emotions, optimism, and positive emotions) causes better health and longevity. For example, prospective longitudinal studies of normal populations provide evidence that various types of subjective well-being such as positive affect predict health and longevity, controlling for health and socioeconomic status at baseline. Combined with experimental human and animal research, as well as naturalistic studies of changes of subjective well-being and physiological processes over time, the case that subjective well-being influences health and longevity in healthy populations is compelling. However, the claim that subjective well-being lengthens the lives of those with certain diseases such as cancer remains controversial. Positive feelings predict longevity and health beyond negative feelings. However, intensely aroused or manic positive affect may be detrimental to health. Issues such as causality, effect size, types of subjective well-being, and statistical controls are discussed.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being 01/2011; 3(1):1 - 43. DOI:10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Annales d Endocrinologie 10/2005; 66(5):446-446. DOI:10.1016/S0003-4266(05)81946-8 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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